Los esclavos modernos cosen para Inditex

Esta mañá o grupo de adolescentes que está en Vilán na segunda de campamento falaba da importancia que os consumidores temos á hora de mudar o estado das cousas, máis aínda cando coñeceñemos historias coma estas:

Carlos Zapata llegó a Buenos Aires en 1998. Venía de La Paz, Bolivia, con muchos sueños y poco equipaje a sus espaldas. Como tantos compatriotas suyos, terminó trabajando en un taller textil, en el que trabajaba su tía, en el barrio porteño de Boedo. “Había mucho trabajo: laburábamos de 8 a 20 horas, en un apartamento donde también dormíamos y nos daban la comida”, cuenta Carlos. Seis años después, el taller cerró y él se marchó con uno de los socios. Allí le tocó turno nocturno: de 20 a 12 horas. Dieciséis horas por día. “Éramos seis personas que nos agolpábamos en un galpón: había niños y embarazadas”, relata Carlos. El taller reproducía un modelo muy extendido en la capital argentina y su conurbano: trabajadores bolivianos y tallerista coreano.

Fueron las reivindicaciones salariales las que hicieron estallar la situación: en 2009, el salario rondaba los 1.200 pesos (unos 200 dólares), y la inflación -en torno al 30% anual- comenzaba a hacerse sentir con fuerza. Alguien denunció, y así fue que, un buen día, la policía entró y clausuró el local. Podría haber sido uno más de los 1.600 allanamientos policiales que, desde la aprobación de la Ley contra la Trata en 2008, han dejado un saldo de 1.200 detenidos y 3.500 trabajadores liberados en Argentina. Pero esta vez fue diferente: el juez ordenó la incautación de las máquinas y su cesión al Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial (INTI), que puso la maquinaria al servicio del Centro Demostrativo de Indumentaria (CDI).

Más conocido como Polo Textil, en el CDI del barrio porteño de Barracas producen unos 60 trabajadores pertenecientes a ocho cooperativas, que se formaron a partir de allanamientos, como en el caso de Carlos, o de quiebras de fábricas textiles. “Ahora gano mucho más, y trabajo de 7 a 17 horas”, resume Carlos.

El relato de Carlos, antes que la excepción, es la regla en el floreciente sector textil argentino. Las cifras bailan, pero diferentes cálculos estiman que hay entre 3.000 y 15.000 talleres clandestinos en la ciudad de Buenos Aires, y probablemente, otros tantos en su cinturón metropolitano. En marzo de 2006, un trágico incendio en la calle Luis Viale dio la voz de alarma: seis bolivianos, cuatro de ellos niños, murieron en un taller ilegal; no pudieron escapar porque les mantenían encerrados. Desde entonces, la lacra de la trata de personas con fines de explotación laboral se colocó en el centro de la agenda política, y asociaciones como la Fundación La Alameda se hicieron muy activas.

Fue esa ONG la que el pasado mes de abril denunció, junto al sindicato CGT, las condiciones de trabajo en tres talleres ilegales que proveían a la marca Zara, del Grupo Inditex La empresa de Amancio Ortega asegura que desconocía las condiciones de aquellos trabajadores; la tercerización de la producción funciona desde hace años como una pantalla que difumina responsabilidades. La Alameda ha denunciado a más de cien firmas, entre ellas Adidas y Puma; en la fundación aseguran que el trabajador cobra alrededor de 1,5 pesos por una prenda que se venderá por 500 pesos en los escaparates de Palermo. Según un estudio conjunto de La Alameda y el INTI, lo habitual es que el trabajador no se lleve más que el 1,5% del precio final de una prenda.

Los diferentes relatos remiten a un mismo modelo: extenuantes jornadas de entre doce y dieciséis horas, pésimas condiciones de seguridad e higiene, migrantes a los que se capta en sus lugares de origen mediante engaños. Es lo que le sucedió a Delia, a quien su tío convenció para marcharse a trabajar a Buenos Aires. No se cumplieron las condiciones pactadas, ni en cuanto al salario ni al horario. Su jornada se prolongaba de las 7 a la medianoche de lunes a viernes, y el sábado hasta la tarde. Delia estalló cuando la picadura de un insecto le infectó la pierna y no le dejaron ir al médico, según relata en un libro publicado por el colectivo de bolivianos Simbiosis. Delia se escapó pero, cuando se vio tan sola en la ciudad, sin documentos y sin dinero, decidió volver. Como a Delia, a muchos empleados se les retiene la documentación y el salario. Algunos son sometidos a servidumbre por deudas: deben abonar el pasaje que les llevó hasta Argentina, pero los intereses y los abusivos precios de los alimentos que han de comprar en el propio lugar de trabajo dificultan la devolución de esa deuda…

Fonte: http://www.carrodecombate.com/2013/07/03/los-esclavos-modernos-cosen-para-inditex/

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