«Grupos de consumo: otra agricultura y alimentación es posible», Esther Vivas

¿Qué comemos? ¿De dónde viene aquello que consumimos? ¿Cómo se ha producido? Son algunas de las cuestiones que preocupan cada día más a una parte significativa de personas. Frente al empobrecimiento del campesinado, la perdida de agrodiversidad, los escándalos alimentarios… son muchos quienes reivindican recuperar la capacidad de decidir sobre las políticas agrícolas y alimentarias.

Por este motivo, no nos debería de sorprender que en los últimos años se hayan multiplicado en el Estado español las experiencias que, desde la auto-organización social, promueven modelos de consumo alternativos a los convencionales, que dan la espalda a los supermercados y que apuestan por «otro consumo” basado en unos criterios de justicia social y ecológica.

Son los llamados grupos de consumo agroecológico, personas de un barrio o de una ciudad que se ponen de acuerdo para comprar conjuntamente y adquirir productos y alimentos de proximidad, agroecológicos, de temporada y campesinos, estableciendo una relación directa de compra con un o varios agricultores locales. Se trata de iniciativas que apuestan por una manera de consumir alternativa, creando alianzas entre el campo y la ciudad y construyendo espacios de solidaridad mutua en las urbes.

Las primeras experiencias de este tipo en el Estado español surgieron a finales de los años 80 y comienzos de los 90, especialmente en Andalucía y Catalunya. Y a partir de principios de los 2000, se multiplicaron y aumentaron en todo el territorio, a raíz del pozo dejado por el movimiento «antiglobalización” y por el auge de los escándalos alimentarios.

Hoy resulta difícil señalar cuantos grupos y cooperativas existen, ya que a pesar de que algunas de ellas están formalmente constituidas como cooperativas o asociaciones, muchas otras no están formalmente registradas. En Catalunya, algunas de éstas se coordinan en la Coordinadora Catalana d’Organitzacions de Consumidors de Procutes Ecològics (Ecoconsum); en Andalucía en la Federación Andaluza de Consumidores y Productores Ecológicos (FACPE); en Galicia en la Rede Galega de Consumo Responsable; y en Aragón en EcoRedAragón.

Hay, también, distintos modelos. Algunas integran en su seno a consumidores y a campesinos, quienes planifican conjuntamente la producción agrícola y los primeros colaboran puntualmente en las tareas del campo, mientras que otras están formadas únicamente por consumidores, quienes establecen una relación directa con los campesinos. Hay modelos llamados de «cestas abiertas”, donde cada consumidor puede pedir periódicamente aquellos productos que necesita de un listado de alimentos de temporada que le ofrece el campesino, y hay otros formatos de «cestas cerradas”, donde el consumidor recibe periódicamente una cesta con productos de la huerta de su proveedor.

Pero a pesar de algunas diferencias, los grupos y cooperativas de consumo agroecológico son experiencias que buscan devolver la capacidad de decidir sobre aquello que comemos a las personas y que defienden un modelo de agricultura de proximidad y campesina. En definitiva, un modelo de consumo que rechaza el actual sistema agrícola y alimentario, monopolizado por un puñado de multinacionales de la agroindustria que anteponen sus intereses particulares, de hacer negocio, a las necesidades alimentarias de las personas y al respeto al ecosistema.

Grupos de consumo, movilización social y cambios políticos, la clave para otro modelo de agricultura y alimentación.

[Artículo publicado en El Periódico Gourmet’s, 17/07/2012

+info: http://esthervivas.com/]

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