«Diálogo entre Ciencia y Fe», Frei Betto

La fe y la ciencia no siempre han sabido dialogar. Las primeras respuestas a las indagaciones del ser humano respecto al cosmos, a los fenómenos naturales y a la vida fueron dadas por la religión. Chamanes, hechiceros, gurús y sacerdotes servían de mediadores entre el Cielo y la Tierra.

La religión es hija de la fe, y la ciencia de la razón. Frente a las búsquedas científicas de los antiguos griegos la religión las miró con los ojos de la desconfianza. No admitía que los hechos narrados en la Biblia fueran apenas mitos y símbolos, sin base científica, como la existencia de Adán y Eva, la construcción de la torre de Babel y el diluvio universal.

Durante 1.300 años la Iglesia se apegó a la cosmología de Ptolomeo (90-168), adecuada a la creencia de que la Tierra es el centro del Universo, en el cual Dios se encarnó en Jesús.

Si la fe parte de verdades reveladas que, a su vez, exigen una adhesión de fe, sin comprobación experimental, la ciencia es el reino de la duda y se apoya en búsquedas empíricas. La fe capta la esencia de las cosas, la ciencia capta la existencia.

Para la ciencia no importa quién o por qué, sino que importa el cómo. A ella no le interesa quién creó el Universo y qué finalidad tienen nuestras vidas. Lo que quiere es saber cómo funcionan las leyes cosmológicas, cómo interactúan entre sí las fuerzas de la naturaleza, cómo retrasar el envejecimiento de nuestras células, ampliando así el tiempo de nuestra vida.

El diálogo entre la fe y la ciencia se inició cuando, en la modernidad, la razón se emancipó de la religión. Que lo digan Copérnico, Galileo y Giordano Bruno. Hubo fricciones y condenaciones recíprocas, hasta que la extensa obra del jesuita Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955) -geólogo, paleontólogo y teólogo- hizo que la Iglesia reconociera que la fe puede no estar de acuerdo con el uso que se hace de los descubrimientos científicos, como la fisión del átomo para la construcción de ojivas nucleares, pero no negar nunca la autonomía de la ciencia y el modo como ella desvela los misterios de la naturaleza.

En ese intento por actualizar el diálogo entre la ciencia y la fe, la editorial Agir reunió, durante tres días, en un hotel de Rio de Janeiro, al físico teórico Marcelo Gleiser y a mí, con la mediación de Waldemar Falcão, espiritualista e investigador de fenómenos esotéricos. De nuestro encuentro resultó el libro «Conversación sobre la fe y la ciencia”, que acaba de ser editado esta semana.

Marcelo Gleiser procede de una familia judía, formado en física por la PUC de Rio de Janeiro, profesor e investigador en la Universidad de Darthmouth, en los EE.UU. Autor de obras excelentes, como la reciente «Creación imperfecta”, Gleiser se considera agnóstico. Me sorprendió su gran conocimiento de historia de las religiones y del modo como ellas se relacionan con la ciencia.

Yo no tengo formación científica, pero muy pronto me interesé por las obras de Teilhard de Chardin. En 1963 publiqué unas notas sobre su pensamiento, reunidas luego en el libro «Sinfonía universal. La cosmovisión de Teilhard de Chardin”.

Más tarde me vi obligado a improvisar como profesor de química, física y biología en un curso suplementario. El deber se convirtió en placer y me llevó a escribir «La obra del Artista. Una visión holística del Universo”, cuya segunda edición está en preparación.

Gleiser leyó mis libros y yo leí los suyos, lo que favoreció nuestro diálogo, en el que se dio más convergencia que divergencia, especialmente en lo tocante a la postura correcta de la ciencia ante la fe y de la fe ante la ciencia.

Son esferas independientes, autónomas, y que sin embargo encuentran sus síntesis en nuestras vidas. Nadie prescinde de la ciencia y de su hija predilecta, la tecnología, así como todos tenemos una dimensión de fe, aunque sea la restringida al amor que une al marido y a su mujer.

Marcelo Gleiser y yo coincidimos en que la finalidad de la ciencia no es obtener provecho (tal como el de las industrias farmacéuticas y bélicas), ni el de la fe imponer verdades (como sucede con el fundamentalismo) o apropiarse de parcelas (Jesús es el camino, pero el cura o pastor cobran el peaje…).

La ciencia y la fe sirven para darnos calidad de vida, conocimiento de la naturaleza y sentido trascendente a la existencia. Si por la fe descubrimos el origen y la finalidad del Universo y de la vida, y por la ciencia el cómo funcionan uno y otro, todo ello importa poco si no nos conduce a lo esencial: a una civilización en la que el amor sea también una exigencia política.

[Traducción de J.L.Burguet]

Fonte: www.adital.com.br/site/noticia.asp?lang=ES&langref=ES&cod=55025

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