«Globalización e Migración», Frei Betto

Presentamos un artigo do teólogo brasileiro Frei Betto baixo o título «Globalización e Migración» que podemos ler en Adital.

«Globalización y Migración»

A lo que llaman globalización yo prefiero denominarlo globocolonización, y resulta de los avances tecnológicos de interacción de los medios de comunicación e información, que permiten el desplazamiento, en tiempo real, del capital financiero, con el objetivo de desestabilizar (o descapitalizar) a los gobiernos que se resisten a la hegemonía capitalista neoliberal.

En el bienio 1950-1960, como reacción a la crisis estructural del capitalismo instaurada en la posguerra, la globocolonización se impuso en función de la reestructuración económica de la hegemonía capitalista. Tuvo como característica la sustitución del modo de producción tecnológico mecanizado por la tecnología informatizada.

Tal proceso, facilitado por el período conservador Reagan-Thacher de los años 80, y el fin del socialismo en Europa del Este, permitieron la amplia expansión del capital financiero. El proceso globocolonizador permitió el desmontaje del Estado-nación, la hegemonización del planeta bajo el control de las naciones metropolitanas y la supremacía del mercado sobre el Estado.

La economía pasó a ser tratada como un ámbito distinto de los ámbitos político y social. El gobierno de Lula ratificó esa autonomía del ámbito económico al entregar el Banco Central a un economista afiliado al PSDB, Henrique Meirelles. Se creó una interconexión entre las economías nacionales de los países del G-8 y la de aquellos que, como el Brasil, son considerados en vías de desarrollo. La reciente crisis financiera en los EE.UU. y sus repercusiones internacionales lo comprueban.

Aunque la globocolonización favorezca la libre circulación del capital, restringe la libre circulación de las personas. Se impide, pues, la globalización de la migración. En los siglos pasados la migración representó un factor positivo que expandió el comercio y la economía, permitió el surgimiento de naciones, fortaleció la urbanización, estimuló intercambios sociales y culturales. El sistema capitalista soportó la migración Norte-Sur, sobre todo durante los períodos de desempleo después de las guerras (7 millones de europeos llegaron a Argentina en el cambio de los siglos 19 y 20), pero hoy rechaza la migración Sur-Norte y teme la del Este-Oeste.

Por fuerza del semicolonialismo el proceso migratorio tiende a crecer. Según la ONU en 1965 los migrantes internacionales fueron 75 millones; 84 millones en 1975; 105 millones en 1985; y 150 millones en el 2000.

Los avances tecnológicos de las últimas décadas permitieron a los trabajadores de los países ricos ejercer actividades menos exhaustivas, hubo mejoras en las condiciones de trabajo y conquista de más derechos laborales. Sin embargo la clase trabajadora de los países pobres, que extrae y manufactura la materia prima para los países ricos, se volvió mucho más explotada. Lo cual provocó un aumento de la migración.

Si hoy hay más de cuatro millones de brasileños en busca de trabajo en el exterior es por falta de esperanza en el mercado interno. Y no hay muro, ley o policía que reduzca el flujo migratorio mientras no se rompa la dependencia del mundo en relación al G-8. Y que éste se prepare para cuando la muralla china sea traspasada por hordas de migrantes…

Publicado en Adital – Traducción de J. L. Burguet

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