Pentecostés hoy: el Espíritu que da vida contra los hostiles a la vida, Leonardo Boff

La fiesta de Pentecostés de hoy 8 de junio de 2014, nos da la oportunidad de pensar sobre el significado del Espíritu Santo con referencia a las actuales amenazas que pesan sobre la vida, especialmente sobre la vida de los pobres de este mundo.

Las Escrituras dicen que “el Espíritu es vida” (Rm 8,10). Afirmar que “el Espíritu es vida” equivale a decir que el Espíritu está continuamente creando y dando soporte al universo, a la Madre Tierra y al sistema-vida hoy amenazado. El Espíritu está del lado y dentro de aquellos que tienen menos vida. Gran parte de la humanidad, especialmente en África, en Asia y en América Latina vive en un mundo extraño y hostil a la vida. Han sido dominados por otras naciones hace siglos y sus tierras les son robadas para garantizar el nivel de consumo ilimitado de las potencias antes colonizadoras que en los días actuales las ha recolonizado. Han hecho una división mundial del trabajo: los países periféricos, económicamente pobres, pero ecológicamente ricos, son condenados a exportar “commodities” (bienes naturales, granos, minerales, agua, etc.) generalmente sin valor añadido y los países ricos les exportan productos tecnológicos a precios altos, sin transferirles la tecnología que les daría ventajas y autonomía.

La consecuencia es que todos estos explotados necesitan hacer un esfuerzo gigantesco para sobrevivir con un mínimo de recursos que les garanticen una vida mínimamente decente. Viven de resistencia sin conocer avances liberadores.

Esta pobreza no es inocente. Está producida por un conjunto de relaciones sociales y económicas profundamente desiguales que, al crear riqueza para los ya ricos, generan gran pobreza e injusticia para las grandes mayorías empobrecidas. Thomas Piketty en su libro “El Capitalismo en el siglo XXI” en el fondo quiere denunciar esta dinámica, creadora de desigualdades. De ahí la crítica del campo capitalista que se ve desenmascarado.

Situarse dentro de la vida del Espíritu significa en esta situación empeñarse por el derecho del pobre a la vida real concreta e integral. Una vida espiritual que se vuelve insensible a la pasión de los pobres es falsa y se hace sorda a las apelaciones del Espíritu. Por más que los fieles en los grandes espectáculos televisivos carismáticos, católicos y evangélicos, recen, canten, dancen y celebren, sin una atención al Espíritu “Padre de los pobres”, como se canta en el himno de la misa de Pentecostés, su oración solo produce autosatisfacción pero no llega a Dios. En ella no está el Espíritu con sus dones.

Bien lo expresaba un teólogo bautista, viviendo con los pobres en Nicaragua, Jorge V. Pixley: «Si el Espíritu Santo no da vida a los que no tienen vida, su poder vivificador es una mentira; en un mundo que forjó un Tercero y un Cuarto mundos subhumanos, la vida espiritual tiene su meta en la vida de los pobres más que en el atletismo moral de los creyentes» (Vida en el Espíritu, 1997, 235).

La opción por los pobres contra su pobreza tiene aquí su fundamento teológico. El Espíritu está infaliblemente del lado de los pobres, independientemente de su situación moral, porque se les priva de la vida y el Espíritu quiere darles vida. Pero él no tiene más brazos que los nuestros. Por eso nos impulsa a crear condiciones de vida para estos pobres y para los condenados a ver la muerte de sus hijos e hijas inocentes, a causa del hambre y de enfermedades causadas por el hambre.

Vivir según el Espíritu significa luchar por los medios de vida, por la salud, por la tierra para la producción, por la vivienda, por una sanidad básica, por la seguridad, por la educación mínima. ¿No fueron estas las demandas de las manifestaciones de 2013? Ahí había algo del Espíritu. No se puede tener verdadero amor a la vida ni ser fiel a los susurros del Espíritu sin defender esta causa y saber sufrir por ella, en el espíritu de las bienaventuranzas. Esta urgencia no puede ser simplemente relegada al Estado y a sus políticas sociales. Es un reto para todos los seres humanos y mucho más para los que creen en el Espíritu de vida.

Los que se comprometen a generar vida son también los que tienen miles de razones para celebrarla, cantarla y sentirse alegres, ya sea en las ritualizaciones que hacen de las luchas (las llamadas «místicas» del Movimiento de los Sin Tierra, de los Sin Techo, de los Movimientos de Mujeres, de los recicladores de materiales) como en las celebraciones religiosas de las comunidades eclesiales de base y en los grandes encuentros.

Traducción de Mª José gavito Milano

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