«Dos dimensiones del ser humano: Dragón y San Jorge», Leonardo Boff

Toda religión, también el cristianismo, tiene muchas valencias. Además de centralizarse en Dios, elabora narraciones sobre el drama paradójico del ser humano, generando sentido, una interpretación de la realidad, de la historia y del mundo.

Ejemplar es la leyenda de san Jorge y el combate feroz con el dragón narrada en el artículo anterior. En primer lugar, el dragón es dragón, por lo tanto una serpiente. Pero alada, con una enorme boca que emite fuego y humo y un olor mortífero.

En Occidente representa el mal y el mundo amenazador de las sombras. En Oriente es un símbolo positivo, símbolo nacional de China, señor de las aguas y de la fertilidad (long). Entre los aztecas la serpiente alada (Quezalcoatl) era un símbolo positivo de su cultura. Para nosotros occidentales el dragón es siempre terrible y representa la amenaza a la vida o las duras dificultades de la supervivencia. Los pobres dicen: “tengo que matar un dragón cada día, tal es la lucha por la supervivencia”.

Pero el dragón, como lo mostró la tradición psicoanalítica de C. G. Jung con Erich Neumann, James Hillmann, Etienne Perrot y otros, representa uno de los arquetipos (elementos estructurales del inconsciente colectivo o imágenes primordiales que estructuran la psique) más ancestrales y transculturales de la humanidad.

Y junto con el dragón viene siempre el caballero heroico que se enfrenta a él en lucha feroz. ¿Qué significan estas dos figuras? De la mano de categorías de C. G. Jung y sus discípulos, especialmente de Erich Neumann que estudió específicamente este arquetipo (La história da origem da consciência, Cultrix 1990), y de la psicoterapia existencial-humanística de Kirk J. Schneider (O eu paradoxal, Vozes 1993) procuremos entender lo que está en juego en ese enfrentamiento. Él enseña y nos desafía.

El camino de la evolución lleva a la humanidad del inconsciente al consciente, de la fusión cósmica con el Todo (Uroboros) a la emergencia de la autonomía del ego. Este paso, totalmente realizado, es dramático; por eso, el ego debe retomarlo continuamente si quiere gozar de libertad y de autonomía.

Es importante reconocer que el dragón aterrador y el caballero heroico son dos dimensiones importantes del mismo ser humano. En nosotros el dragón es nuestro universo ancestral, oscuro, nuestras sombras, de donde surgimos hacia la luz de la razón y de la independencia del ego. No sin razón en algunas iconografías, especialmente en una de Cataluña (es su patrono) el dragón aparece envolviendo todo el cuerpo del caballero. En un grabado de Rogério Fernandes (com.br) el dragón aparece envolviendo el cuerpo de san Jorge, que lo sujeta con el brazo, y tiene su rostro, nada amenazador, a la altura del de san Jorge. Es un dragón humanizado formando una unidad con san Jorge. En otras imágenes (en Google hay 25 páginas de san Jorge con el dragón) el dragón aparece como un animal domesticado al cual san Jorge, de pie, conduce sereno, no con la lanza sino con un bastón.

La actividad del héroe, en este caso san Jorge, en su lucha con el dragón, muestra la fuerza del ego, valeroso, iluminado, que se afirma y conquista autonomía, pero siempre en tensión con la dimensión oscura del dragón. Conviven, pero el dragón no consigue dominar al ego.

Dice Neumann: «La actividad de la conciencia es heroica cuando el ego asume y realiza por sí mismo la lucha arquetípica con el dragón del inconsciente, llevándola a una síntesis satisfactoria» (Op.cit. p.244). La persona que hace esta travesía no reniega del dragón, pero lo mantiene domesticado e integrado como su lado de sombra. Por esta razón, en la mayoría de los relatos, san Jorge no mata al dragón, solamente lo domestica y lo reinserta en su lugar, dejando de ser amenazador. Ahí surge la síntesis feliz de los opuestos; el yo paradójico encuentra su equilibrio pues alcanza la armonización del ego con el dragón, del consciente con el inconsciente, de la luz con la sombra, de la razón con la pasión, de lo racional con lo simbólico, de la ciencia con el arte y con la religión.

El enfrentarse a las oposiciones y la búsqueda del equilibrio constituye la característica de personalidades maduras, que integraron las dimensiones de sombra y de luz. Así lo vemos en Buda, Francisco de Asís, Jesús, en Gandhi y en Luther King.

Los cariocas tienen gran veneración por san Jorge, más que por san Sebastián, patrono oficial de la ciudad. Éste es un guerrero, acribillado por las flechas, por lo tanto, “derrotado”. El pueblo siente necesidad de un santo guerrero valiente que vence las adversidades. Y san Jorge representa el santo ideal. En la novela “Salve Jorge” será él que va  liberar las chicas traficadas para Turquia para ser prostitutas.

Tal vez los que veneran a san Jorge ante el dragón no saben nada de esto. No importa. Su inconsciente lo sabe y activa y realiza en ellos su obra: el deseo de luchar, de afirmarse como egos autónomos que se enfrentan e integran las dificultades (los dragones) dentro de un proyecto positivo de vida (san Jorge héroe victorioso). Y salen fortalecidos para la lucha de la vida.

Fonte: http://leonardoboff.wordpress.com/

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