Comunicado da HOAC e JOC ante a nova reforma laboral

La Juventud Obrera Cristiana y la Hermandad Obrera de Acción Católica, como parte de la Iglesia en el mundo obrero y del trabajo, ofrecemos esta reflexión ante la aprobación por el Consejo de Ministros de una nueva reforma laboral.

Nos encontramos con la 16ª reforma del mercado de trabajo en democracia. Hasta ahora las sucesivas reformas laborales llevadas a cabo por los gobiernos, de uno u otro signo político, bajo el pretexto de modernizar y flexibilizar dicho mercado laboral, han transformando la concepción y función del trabajo asalariado en nuestra sociedad y están socavando los derechos de las personas trabajadoras y de sus familias.

Estas reformas siempre se han presentado como una necesidad para combatir el desempleo, pero sólo han conseguido:

– incrementar el empleo temporal, especialmente para los jóvenes;

– diversificar las modalidades de contratación a la carta;

– abaratar el coste del despido;

– reducir el crecimiento de los salarios;

– devaluar lo público (servicios sociales, educación y sanidad).

En definitiva, han profundizado en el trabajo precario y en el empobrecimiento de las familias trabajadoras. Un ejemplo lo tenemos en los años de crecimiento económico anteriores a la actual crisis: aún creándose riqueza y empleo, estos no sirvieron para disminuir la pobreza en nuestro país.

Ninguna reforma ha estado orientada hacia la expansión de un empleo decente como Benedicto XVI reclama en la encíclica Caritas in veritate. Los derechos que emanan de un trabajo a la altura del ser humano no pueden estar subordinados a las exigencias económicas. Es la economía la que debe orientarse a las necesidades de las personas y de sus familias; es el ser humano el centro de la actividad económica y laboral. El respeto a la dignidad del trabajo, vinculado a la dignidad de la persona, es y debe ser el criterio central de una economía orientada por “una ética amiga de la persona”. (Benedicto XVI, Caritas in veritate, 45)

Esta nueva reforma es otra agresión al trabajo humano como principio de vida. Creemos que una reforma laboral que pretende ser completa y marcar un antes y un después en las relaciones laborales, no puede hacerse sin el suficiente consenso social entre las personas trabajadoras y el colectivo empresarial.

Y tendría, además, que responder a las necesidades de las familias trabajadoras y no a las exigencias impuestas por los mercados financieros, las grandes empresas, las instituciones comunitarias y los organismos económicos internacionales.

Esta reforma laboral es una vuelta de tuerca más para flexibilizar el mercado de trabajo:

– Quiebra el derecho constitucional a la negociación colectiva y a la capacidad organizativa de los trabajadores –no existe negociación real de los trabajadores en el ámbito de la empresa cuando el 95% del tejido productivo español está compuesto por empresas de menos de 50 trabajadores. Este Real Decreto contempla la fractura de la cohesión social al habilitar la “caducidad” de los convenios colectivos desincentivando cualquier negociación entre las partes.

– Facilita y abarata la expulsión del mercado de trabajo: quita trabas al despido por causas económicas; rebaja la indemnización del improcedente (pasando a 33 días por año trabajado, con un máximo de 24 mensualidades) y elimina la autorización administrativa para poder llevar a cabo los expedientes de regulación de empleo. Los contratos indefinidos con esta nueva regulación tampoco tendrán, como los temporales, condición de estabilidad.

– Abre el camino para ajustar los salarios a la productividad. Con esta reforma, los salarios de los trabajadores más débiles van a depender de la voluntad unilateral del empresario.

– Dificulta, cuando no impide o precariza, el empleo juvenil. Más del 80% del empleo destruido por la crisis corresponde a empleo juvenil. El nuevo contrato de trabajo indefinido, especialmente para jóvenes (también para desempleados de larga duración), dirigido a las empresas de menos de 50 trabajadores, se puede convertir, más que indefinido, en un contrato temporal sin causa justificada. Estas nuevas modalidades de contratación y regulación ponen en serio peligro, aún más, la estabilidad presente y futura de la mayor parte de la juventud.

No compartimos la individualización de las relaciones laborales que propone esta reforma. Recordamos a nuestros gobernantes que el trabajo es una experiencia comunitaria y que una de las funciones de la empresa, según la Doctrina Social de la Iglesia, es favorecer la comunitariedad. Todo lo que suponga la individualización, dar prioridad a los intereses personales frente a los colectivos, significa romper la vocación a la comunión del ser humano
No es lícito eliminar derechos y protección de las personas trabajadoras con el argumento de combatir el desempleo y de reducir la temporalidad, cuando han sido las políticas económicas de los últimos gobiernos las que han provocado que haya un tejido productivo tan débil y un empleo tan precario.

No podemos seguir flexibilizando las relaciones laborales sin garantizar la seguridad de una vida digna para las personas trabajadoras y sus familias. Y esta reforma se lleva a cabo en un contexto de quiebra del Estado de Bienestar, de reducción del Sector Público y de recortes de los servicios y prestaciones sociales sin precedentes.

Esta reforma rompe el débil equilibrio conquistado históricamente entre capital-trabajo, alejándose del principio siempre defendido por la Iglesia de la prioridad del trabajo frente al capital. Además, supone un nuevo golpe al Derecho Laboral limitando su capacidad de frenar la creciente mercantilización y “cosificación” del trabajo humano. Consideramos que este gobierno ha aprovechado el estado de quietud y miedo de la mayor parte de la ciudadanía, para eliminar viejas conquistas laborales y aspiraciones conseguidas tras muchas luchas de tantas personas a lo largo de la historia.

Los retos actuales que atraviesa la economía española requieren medidas políticas concertadas en el ámbito internacional que subordinen la economía financiera a la economía productiva. Es preciso, como ha pedido insistentemente Benedicto XVI y el Pontificio Consejo Justicia y Paz, una reforma del sistema financiero internacional. Esta reforma supondría avanzar en justicia social y comunión de bienes, redistribuyendo efectivamente la riqueza existente; controlar la economía especulativa y frenar el desmedido afán de lucro, en lugar de eliminar derechos. Este es el camino que puede generar riqueza orientada a la creación de empleo decente y con derechos, y a disminuir la pobreza.

Como Iglesia en el mundo obrero, en las actuales circunstancias, pedimos a las autoridades políticas, a los agentes sociales y económicos, al conjunto de los trabajadores y de la sociedad, y especialmente a los cristianos y cristianas, que caminemos juntos, con la intención de eliminar las causas que han generado esta crisis económica y, al mismo tiempo, superemos las estructuras económicas y sociales injustas que tanto sufrimiento, deshumanización y pobreza están provocando a las personas.

También instamos a los partidos políticos a corregir y reorientar, en el proceso parlamentrario, esta reforma laboral poniendo en el centro de la misma el trabajo decente y con derechos y, al mismo tiempo, animamos a participar en las iniciativas y movilizaciones que se convoquen por parte de las organizaciones eclesiales, sociales y sindicales que ayuden a tomar conciencia y revertir esta situación tan lesiva para las personas trabajadoras y sus familias.

Madrid, 16 de febrero de 2012

Fonte: www.hoac.es/2012/02/17/la-hoac-y-la-joc-ante-la-nueva-reforma-laboral

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