Salud del pueblo, indiferencia del Estado – Frei Betto

El neoliberalismo dio el tiro de gracia al Estado de bienestar social. Destruyó los vínculos societarios en las relaciones de trabajo, deslegitimó a la representación sindical y convirtió lo público en privado. Lo que era un derecho del ciudadano, como la salud, pasó a depender de las relaciones de mercado y de la iniciativa personal del consumidor.

Quien no tiene un plan privado de salud entra en la planilla de los cementerios. Hoy día 40 millones de brasileños desembolsan cada mes una cantidad considerable, convencidos de que cuando se enfermen serán atendidos con la misma rapidez y gentileza con que fueron asediados por los pasillos de las empresas de salud privada.

Se multiplican los clientes y proliferan los planes de salud, sin que la red hospitalaria acompañe esa progresión. El asociado sólo descubre el camino del purgatorio a la hora en que necesita una respuesta del plan: los laboratorios y los hospitales están repletos, hay largas filas, pocos médicos, y todos los enfermos que esperan extenuados.

En general el personal de servicio, que es quien está en contacto con los beneficiarios, no demuestra la menor disposición para proporcionar el mejor analgésico ante el primer dolor: la gentileza, la atención y la información sin disimulo o medias palabras.

Entonces, si faltan puestos de salud y hospitales; si los consultorios tienen salas de espera repletas cual estación de tren en vísperas de un feriado; si a la hora de la verdad se descubre que el plan es más torcido y accidentado de lo que se suponía… ¿a quién recurrir? ¿o sólo queda entregarse a las manos de Dios?

El Brasil es el país de las paradojas. Lo que el gobierno hace con una mano lo deshace con la otra. El SUS registra once millones de internados por año; muchos de los cuales podrían ser evitados si el gobierno tuviera una política de prevención eficiente y, por ejemplo, reglamentara, como ya lo hace con las bebidas alcohólicas y el tabaco, la publicidad de los alimentos nocivos para la salud. La obesidad compromete la salud del 48% de la población.

En cuanto a nuestros niños, el 45% tiene sobrepeso, cuando el índice de normalidad es no pasar del 2.3%. De cada cinco niños obesos, cuatro lo seguirán siendo de adultos. Sin embargo las leyes aseguran inmunidad e impunidad a una infinidad de golosinas y bebidas, muchas de ellas anunciadas al público infantil en la televisión y en otros medios. ¡Exceso de azúcar y grasa saturada!

La buena fe nutricional insiste en la importancia de las verduras y legumbres. Pero la ANVISA (vigilancia sanitaria) no se compromete para librar al Brasil del vergonzoso título de campeón mundial en el uso de agrotóxicos. Ciertas sustancias químicas prohibidas en otros países son encontradas en productos vendidos en el Brasil y que provocan el cáncer, la malformación fetal, la hidroencefalia, etc.

Entre el 2002 y el 2008 los accidentes de moto se multiplicaron por 7.5 en el Brasil. En la capital paulista suponen cuatro muertes al día. Muchos moteros sobreviven con lesiones graves. Mientras tanto la revisión de vehículos y conductores es superficial y las vías públicas no están adaptadas al trasiego de vehículos de dos ruedas.

Quien llega al Brasil procedente del exterior debe rellenar y firmar un documento de la Farmacia Federal declarando si trae medicamentos o no. En caso positivo el producto y el pasajero son orientados a la ANVISA. Pero entran cada día toneladas de veneno por nuestros puertos y aeropuertos, y son vendidos en cualquier esquina: anabolizantes, energizantes, además de que la televisión pasa anuncios de refrigerantes con alta dosis de cafeína y poder de corrosión ósea.

Aunque todo el mundo sepa que la salud, la alimentación y la educación son prioritarias, el Ministerio de Salud dispone de pocos recursos, apenas el 3.6% del PIB, lo que equivale, este año 2011, a cerca de US$ 40 mil millones. Y un detalle: en 1995 el gobierno de F.H. Cardoso destinó a la salud más de 45 mil millones de dólares USA. La Argentina, cuya población es cinco veces inferior a la del Brasil, destina anualmente dos veces más recursos que nuestro país.

Nuestra salud resulta perjudicada también por el exceso de burocracia de las agencias reguladoras, la corrupción que se propaga por los tentáculos del poder público (véase el manual de la Funasa en su relación con la salud indígena), la falta de coordinación entre el gobierno central, los Estados y los municipios. Aumenta la mercantilización de la medicina, la carencia de médicos y su mala distribución por el país (Rio de Janeiro tiene 4 médicos por cada mil habitantes; Marañón solo 0.6).

El gobierno es como el frijol: sólo funciona en la olla a presión. Si la sociedad civil no exige mejoras en la salud, en la atención del SUS, en el control de los proyectos privados y de los medicamentos (por los cuales se pagan precios abusivos), estaremos abocados a ser una nación, no de ciudadanos, sino de pacientes, en el doble sentido de la palabra. Y condenados a una muerte precoz por negligencia del Estado.

[Traducción de J.L.Burguet]

fonte: www.adital.com.br/site/noticia.asp?lang=ES&cod=56974

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