La educación, ¿caso de política o de policía? – Frei Betto

El IBGE divulgó el 17 de diciembre la Síntesis de Indicadores Sociales 2010. El IGBE es un órgano del gobierno federal; por tanto no está al servicio de la oposición ni de los detractores del gobierno de Lula. Por suerte es serio y autónomo. Los datos concernientes a la educación en el Brasil son aterradores.

En el 2009 el 14.8% de los jóvenes de 15 a 17 años no iban a la escuela. Y el 32.8% de los comprendidos entre 18 y 24 años dejaron sus estudios sin terminar la enseñanza media. (Mano de obra sin cualificar y candidatos al narcotráfico…).

Comparado con los otros países del Mercosur, el Brasil tenía la tasa más alta de abandono del nivel medio: el 10% de alumnos. En Argentina el 7%, en Uruguay el 6.8%, en Chile el 2.9%, en Paraguay el 2.3% y en Venezuela el 1%.

¿Por qué abandonan la escuela nuestros jóvenes? Las principales causas son: la falta de recursos para pagar los estudios y el reducido número de escuelas públicas; el desinterés; la contante repetición, provocada por pedagogías desfasadas, desmotivación y frecuente ausencia de los profesores; la dificultad en el transporte; y la necesidad de ingresar precozmente al mercado de trabajo.

Para que un alumno se comprometa a hacer una buena enseñanza media es necesario que su motivación sea despertada ya en la preparatoria y en la enseñanza primaria. Pero ¿cómo alcanzar este objetivo si nuestros niños permanecen, en general, apenas cuatro horas al día en la escuela? La media latinoamericana es de seis horas.

A pesar de ello ha habido avances en los últimos diez años, en que casi se dobló el número de jóvenes de 18 a 24 años que terminaron la enseñanza media o ingresaron en la universidad. Si en 1999 terminaron apenas el 29.6% de los alumnos la enseñanza media, en el 2009 el índice subió al 55.9%. En 1999 el 21.7% tenían 11 años de estudios (tiempo suficiente para completar la enseñanza media); en el 2009 el 40.7% frecuentaron la escuela durante 11 años. En 1999 ingresaron a la universidad el 7.9%; en el 2009 fue el 15.2%.

En el 2009 el 30.8 de los jóvenes de entre 18 y 24 años terminaron algún curso de cualificación profesional. En el 2004 sólo fueron el 17.2%. Este avance se debe al empeño del gobierno por multiplicar el número de escuelas técnicas, así como al sistema S (Senai, Senac, etc.) y a las becas de estudio concedidas vía ProUni.

Pero detrás de los datos positivos se esconden desigualdades sangrantes. En el 2009 el 81% de los jóvenes entre 15 y 17 años de entre el 20% de los más pobres estaban en la escuela. En el 20% de los más ricos el índice subía al 93.9%. Gracias al sistema de cuotas y al ProUni se dobló el número de universitarios mayores de 25 años que se declaran negros: en 1999 era el 2.3%, y en el 2009 fue el 4.7%. Pero el índice de los que se declaran blancos es casi cuatro veces mayor: 15%.

El Brasil cuenta con 3.6 millones de niños menores de 4 años y es ínfimo el número de casas cuna para ellos. Eso significa que están sujetos a graves desvíos pedagógicos debido a un largo tiempo de exposición a la televisión, a la permanente convivencia con adultos y ancianos, muchas veces confiados a vecinos mientras sus padres asisten al trabajo. La Constitución asegura, en el Capítulo II – De los Derechos Sociales, «asistencia gratuita a los hijos y dependientes desde el nacimiento hasta los seis años en casas cuna y preescolares». ¿Cuántas empresas lo cumplen?

Según el IBGE, entre 0 y 14 años hay en el Brasil una población de poco más de 54 millones de personas. De ellas, 5 millones, o el 10.9% del total, viven en situación de riesgo, en viviendas sin agua potable, red de alcantarillado ni recogida de basura. El Nordeste concentra la mayor parte de dichos niños, el 19.2%. Y el Marañón y el Piauí son quienes lideran esta estadística. La encuesta señala también que casi el 39.4% de los alumnos de enseñanza elemental asisten a escuelas sin red sanitaria y el 10% de las mismas no cuentan con agua potable.

Falta mucho por hacer. Mientras la educación brasileña no alcance el nivel mínimo de calidad continuaremos siendo una nación desigual, injusta, subdesarrollada y dependiente. No es para menos, pues aunque la Constitución exija que sea destinado el 8% del PIB a la educación, la inversión del gobierno en esta área no llega al 5%. Y el presupuesto del Ministerio de Cultura para el 2011 es inferior al 1%.

No es de extrañar el nepotismo en la Casa Civil y los Tiriricas en la campaña electoral. Además de educación, al Brasil le falta vergüenza. De esa forma el menosprecio de la política para con la educación acaba siendo un caso de policía, semejante al crecimiento de la violencia urbana.

[Traducción de J.L.Burguet]

Fonte: www.adital.com.br/site/noticia.asp?lang=ES&cod=51975

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