«Fame de xustiza», Frei Betto

Achegamos un dos últimos artigos do teólogo brasileiro Frei Betto baixo o título de "Fame de xustiza".

Al día de hoy son ya 950 millones las personas amenazadas por el hambre crónica. Eran 800 millones el año pasado. De allá para acá aumentó el número, debido a la expansión del agronegocio, cuyas tecnologías encarecen los alimentos, y a la mayor extensión de áreas destinadas al cultivo de agrocombustibles, producidos para saciar el hambre de las máquinas y no de la gente.

El hambre es lo más letal que ha inventado la injusticia humana. Causa más muertes que todas las guerras. Elimina a cerca de 23 mil vidas al día, ¡casi mil personas por hora! Las principales víctimas son los niños.

Casi nadie muere por falta de alimentos. El ser humano soporta casi todo: políticos corruptos, humillaciones, agresiones, indiferencias, la opulencia de unos pocos. Hasta el plato vacío. Por eso se puede decir que nadie muere por la falta completa de alimentos. Los hambrientos, cuando no tienen nada que comer, llevan a la boca, para engañar al hambre, sobras recogidas en la basura, lagartos, ratones, gatos, hormigas e insectos varios. La falta de vitaminas, carbohidratos y otros nutrientes esenciales debilita el organismo y lo hace vulnerable a las enfermedades. Los niños raquíticos mueren de un sencillo resfriado, por carencia de defensas.

Hay apenas cuatro factores de muerte precoz: accidentes (de trabajo o de tránsito), violencia (asesinato, terrorismo o guerra), enfermedades (cáncer o sida) y hambre. Ésta produce el mayor número de víctimas. Sin embargo es el factor que menos movilizaciones suscita. Hay campañas seguidas contra el terrorismo o para curar el sida, pero ¿quién protesta contra el hambre?

Los miserables no hacen protestas. Sólo quien come se pone en huelga, sale a las calles, manifiesta en público su descontento y reivindicaciones. Como esa gente no sufre amenaza de hambre, los hambrientos son ignorados.

Ahora los líderes de las naciones más ricas y poderosas del mundo, reunidos en el G-8, en L’Aquila, Italia, a principios de junio, decidieron liberar US$ 15 mil millones para aplacar el hambre mundial.

¡Qué cinismo se gasta el G-8! Él es el responsable de que los hambrientos sean multitud. Éstos no existirían si las naciones metropolitanas no adoptasen políticas proteccionistas, barreras aduaneras, transnacionales de agrotóxicos y de semillas transgénicas. No morirían de hambre casi 5 millones de niños al año si el G-8 no manipulase a la OMC, no incentivase la desigualdad social y todo lo que la aumenta: el latifundio, la especulación con los precios de los alimentos, la apropiación privada de la riqueza.

¡Sólo 15 mil millones de dólares! ¿Saben esos señores y señoras del G-8 cuántos millones destinaron para salvar, no a la humanidad, sino al mercado financiero, desde setiembre del 2008 a junio del 2009? ¡Mil veces esa cantidad! 15 mil millones de dólares sirven sólo para ofrecer unos caramelos a algunos hambrientos. Sin contar con que buena parte de esos recursos irá a la bolsa de los corruptos o servirá de moneda de cambio electoral. ‘Le doy un pan, deme un voto’.

Si el G-8 tuviera verdadera intención de erradicar el hambre del mundo promovería cambios en las estructuras mercantilistas que rigen la producción y el comercio mundiales, y canalizaría más recursos hacia las naciones pobres que hacia los agentes del mercado financiero y a la industria bélica.

Si los dueños del mundo quisieran acabar realmente con el hambre declararían el latifundio un crimen de lesa humanidad y permitirían la libre circulación de alimentos, parecido a lo que sucede con el dinero. De igual manera, si tuvieran también el propósito de erradicar el narcotráfico, en vez de agarrar a unos pocos traficantes pondrían sus máquinas de guerra a destruir definitivamente los campos de plantación de marihuana, de coca, de opio y de otros vegetales, transformándolos en áreas de agricultura familiar. Sin materias primas no hay traficante capaz de producir droga.

Decir que el G-8 intenta acabar con el hambre o salvar el planeta de la degradación ambiental equivale a esperar que la próxima Navidad Papá Noel traiga de regalo una vida digna para todos los niños pobres. Tanto es el cinismo, que los líderes mundiales prometen establecer bases de sustentabilidad ambiental a partir del 2050.

Ahora bien, si la naturaleza enseña algo obvio es que, a medio plazo, estaremos todos muertos. Si la Tierra ya perdió un 25% de su capacidad de autorregeneración, ¿qué pasará si la humanidad tiene que esperar otros 40 años para que se tomen medidas eficaces?

Si los que no pasan hambre tuvieran, al menos, hambre de justicia, virtud calificada por Jesús como bienaventuranza, entonces la esperanza en un futuro mejor no sería vana.

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