Cartos para financiar o cambio social

O xornal Diagonal publica varios artigos no último número nos que aborda as alternativas dentro da banca ética, facendo especial fincapé na proposta de Coop57 que parece próxima a implantarse en Galicia.

Tamén recomendamos a entrevista a dúas integrantes de Coop57 e o artigo "La necesidad de una nueva ética bancaria".

Cuando uno se halla frente a una persona de Coop57 para departir sobre el proyecto, lo primero que percibe es entusiasmo. Una especie de alegría contagiosa que hunde sus raíces en la demostración de que otro tipo de economía, alternativa al mercado, es viable. “Actualmente contamos con una red entretejida de unas 300 entidades, superamos las mil entre personas y familias colaboradoras que ahorran desde la ética y la solidaridad.

Ello, en perspectiva, supone un camino andado cuya valoración es tan fantástica que si alguna persona me hubiera dicho hace 15 años que esto pasaría, seguro que hubiese pensado en cuánto había bebido quien me lo decía”, sostiene Paco Hernández, uno de los 57 ex empleados de la editorial Bruguera que fundaron esta cooperativa de servicios financieros. Y es que, desde que este grupo de trabajadores, cuyo número ha dado nombre al proyecto, lo pusiera en marcha en 1996, no ha cesado de crecer. Y lo ha hecho, “con una metodología sencilla y horizontal”.

Las cifras hablan por sí solas. La cooperativa cerró 2008 con un volumen de 4.533.157 euros de aportaciones de socios y 3.527.607 euros de créditos concedidos. En Catalunya, donde Coop57 posee una mayor implantación, ha financiado en los últimos cuatro años y por un valor de más de diez millones de euros, a 300 proyectos vinculados con la promoción del cooperativismo, la inserción laboral, la sostenibilidad ecológica, la cultura, la educación, el asociacionismo y los movimientos sociales. Las iniciativas apoyadas en 2008 van desde la cooperativa para la difusión de las nuevas tecnologías Haicku en Madrid y la mensajería ecológica La Veloz en Zaragoza, hasta las catalanas Fundación 3 Turons, dedicada a la asistencia en salud mental y Albera, una carpintería especializada en jardines de infancia.

Coop57 funciona como una gran red de apoyo mutuo y solidaridad. Una entidad, si desea pedir un crédito, primero debe formar parte del proyecto. Pero además de las organizaciones socias, únicos sujetos que tienen derecho a financiación, la cooperativa se apoya en un conjunto importante de socias y socios colaboradores, los llamados “ahorradores”. Se trata de personas físicas que, en vez de dejar sus ahorros en manos de la banca tradicional, con el riesgo de que acaben financiando campos como “la producción de armamento o las centrales nucleares”, optan por depositarlos en un proyecto que los usará para desarrollar iniciativas de economía social.

Tras completar su implantación en Catalunya, Aragón y Madrid, el pasado 27 de septiembre Coop57 arrancó oficialmente en Andalucía. La próxima estación es Galicia, donde ya existe un grupo promotor formado por 15 colectivos.

Paco Hernández, a sus 58 años, sabe que el camino recorrido no ha sido fácil. Queda lejos el año 1989, cuando “los 57 de Bruguera”, tras una larga lucha por sus puestos de trabajo jalonada por ocupaciones, encierros y huelgas de hambre, una protesta que ha supuesto todo un ejemplo de movilización autónoma, consiguieron una histórica victoria judicial. El Supremo les otorgó cuantiosas indemnizaciones y ellos decidieron invertirlas en proyectos transformadores.

Tras destinar una parte a la revolución sandinista de Nicaragua y otra a los jornaleros andaluces en lucha del Sindicato de Obreros del Campo, con la tercera parte constituyeron una “caja de resistencia” que serviría para poner en marcha Coop57-Catalunya. A pesar de los límites de un modelo que depende de la fuerza voluntaria (sólo dispone de cinco personas empleadas), Coop57 ha conseguido poner en manos de los movimientos sociales “una herramienta sólida de finanzas éticas y solidarias”, asegura Hernández.

“Cuando se habla de modelos de funcionamiento en red y de crecimiento horizontal, no conozco ninguna experiencia que incorpore estos dos temas dentro de un contexto y espacio tan amplio y plural. De hecho, el que se generen productos para intercooperar ya me parece algo transformador y generador de la herramienta al servicio de un nuevo mercado social postcapitalista”, concluye este ex trabajador de Bruguera.

CRÉDITOS Y ADELANTO DE SUBVENCIONES

Esta cooperativa ofrece a sus entidades tres tipos de ayuda económica: créditos para inversión, financiación para circulante y adelanto de subvenciones. “Nos interesa más la inversión que el adelanto de subvenciones, porque supone crear o mantener empleo en vez de sacar las castañas del fuego a la Administración”, indica Nuria del Río, de Coop57-Madrid.

PROYECTO DE ORIGEN CATALÁN

La cooperativa arranca en 1996 en Catalunya, donde se encuentra actualmente el mayor volumen de entidades (163 entidades) y personas ahorradoras (629). Siguiendo el modelo catalán, nueve años después se crea Coop57-Aragón (29 entidades y 152 personas hoy) y en febrero de 2007 se constituye en Madrid.

GESTIÓN DE TÍTULOS PARTICIPATIVOS

En estos meses, con fórmulas innovadoras en las que han tomado parte más de 200 colectivos y personas, Coop57 ha afrontado la emisión de títulos participativos para las cooperativas La Paleta de Mataró (480.000 euros), L’Olivera de Vallbona de Lleida (400.000 euros) y Gneis de Madrid (60.000 euros). Las suscripciones de títulos, de 1.000 euros cada uno, se agotaron en pocos días.

LOS SEIS PRINCIPIOS DE LA BANCA ÉTICA

Coop57 rige su funcionamiento según los principios de la banca ética, que se resumen en transparencia, participación, reflexión continua, solidaridad, compatibilidad y coherencia. “Nuestro dinero no puede financiar proyectos contradictorios con nuestros principios éticos y sociales (como por ejemplo, la industria armamentística, el dumping social o la expoliación ambiental)”, indica su carta de presentación.

Más información: www.coop57.coop

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