«Drogas y Religión», Frei Betto

Participé en São Paulo, en diciembre pasado, en un simposio sobre el crack, promovido por el Cebrid (Centro Brasileño de Informaciones sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas).

Históricamente el uso de alucinógenos y otras sustancias químicas tuvo su origen en rituales religiosos, como todavía sucede hoy con el guaro, utilizado por los fieles del candomblé.

En la descripción que hace el evangelista Mateo del nacimiento de Jesús consta que los reyes magos (¿astrólogos?) llevaron como regalos al Mesías oro, símbolo de la realeza; incienso, símbolo de la espiritualidad; y mirra, símbolo del profetismo.

El incienso, utilizado inicialmente en el antiguo Egipto y extraído del tronco de árboles aromáticos, es una ‘droga’ que reduce la ansiedad y el apetito. Al contrario de lo que muchos piensan, no es originario de la India sino de las montañas del sur de Arabia Saudita, de Somalia y de Etiopía.

La mirra, originaria del África tropical, es una resina que se obtiene de los arbustos del género Commifora. Sus efectos analgésicos son parecidos a los de la morfina. En el evangelio de Marcos aparece, mezclada con vino, cuando le fue ofrecida a Jesús torturado antes de ser crucificado; dice el texto que él rechazó tal bebida.

Ahora las sustancias químicas obtenidas de plantas superaron el ámbito de lo religioso y terapéutico y se volvieron materia elemental para la dependencia química con sus nefastas consecuencias, como es el caso de la coca, cuya hoja es mascada por los indígenas andinos para facilitar la respiración en regiones de oxigenación enrarecida.

Se da también la producción de drogas sintéticas y el ‘doctor shopping’, el médico que produce poderosos analgésicos capaces de provocar la muerte de sus pacientes, como se dio en los casos de Michael Jackson y Whitney Houston.

La represión del narcotráfico no arroja resultados satisfactorios. Las familias de los dependientes, desesperadas, buscan hospitales y terapias ‘milagrosas’. Los médicos, las medicinas y las terapias pueden, es cierto, ayudar en la recuperación de alguno dependientes. Pero lo fundamental es el amor de la familia y de los amigos, lo cual no es nada fácil en esta sociedad consumista, individualista, en la que el ‘drogado’ representa una amenaza y un estorbo.

La religión, adoptada en algunas comunidades terapéuticas, puede favorecer la recuperación, siempre que infunda en el dependiente un nuevo sentido a su vida. He ahí, además, lo que evitó que mi generación, la que tenía 20 años en la década de 1960, entrase de cabeza en las drogas: estábamos enviciados de utopía. Nuestro ‘viaje’ era derribar la dictadura y cambiar el mundo.

En la cuestión de las drogas hay que distinguir entre seguridad pública y salud pública. Soy favorable a la despenalización de los usuarios y a la penalización de los traficantes. Los usuarios sólo debieran ser alejados de la convivencia social cuando resultaran una amenaza para la sociedad. En dicho caso debieran ser orientados a un tratamiento y no al encarcelamiento.

La religión nos sumerge en un universo onírico, pues nos hace emerger de la realidad objetiva y nos introduce en la esfera de lo trascendente, imprimiendo sacralidad a nuestra existencia. Más que un catálogo de creencias, ella nos permite experimentar a Dios; de ahí su etimología: nos religa con Aquel que nos creó y nos ama, y en el cual llegaremos a desembocar cuando alcancemos el límite de esta vida.

Sucede que, gracias al neoliberalismo y su nefasto ‘fin de la historia’ -una grave ofensa a la esperanza- y a las nuevas tecnologías electrónicas, a las que traspasamos el universo onírico, ya apenas tenemos utopías liberadoras ni el idealismo altruista de un mundo mejor. Queremos mejorar nuestra vida, la de nuestra familia, no la del país y la de la humanidad.

Ese agujero en el pecho abre, en los jóvenes, el apetito de las drogas. Todo ‘drogado’ es un místico en potencia, alguien que descubrió lo que debiera ser obvio para todo: la felicidad está dentro y no fuera de la persona. El error es buscarla a través de la puerta del absurdo y no por la del Absoluto.

Un poco más de espiritualidad cultivada en las familias, sobre todo en niños y jóvenes, y no tendríamos tanta vulnerabilidad ante la seducción de las drogas.

El incienso, finalmente, le hace bien al alma.

Fonte: http://www.adital.com.br/site/noticia.asp?lang=ES&cod=73159

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