Finou o cardenal Carlo Maria Martini

“He llegado al tiempo en el cual la edad y la enfermedad me envían una clara señal de que es hora de apartarse de las cosas de la Tierra para prepararme a la próxima llegada del Reino. Prometo mis oraciones para todas vuestras preguntas irresueltas. Pueda Jesús responder a los interrogantes más profundos en el corazón de cada uno de vosotros”. Hablaba así, abierto y paternal, el cardenal Carlo Maria Martini, arzobispo de Milán durante dos décadas, muerto ayer de Parkinson con 85 años. Con estas frases, el 24 de junio, se despedía de los lectores del Corriere della Sera, desde cuyas columnas cada domingo contestaba a sus cartas llenas de observaciones y dilemas éticos y de fe. Lo hizo durante tres años, y hasta que tuvo fuerzas, con palabras humanas y sencillas. Culto, exégeta del Antiguo Testamento, autor de numerosos libros, traducciones y escritos, supo hablar a las personas, católicas y no, visitaba habitualmente las cárceles y, a pesar de que a menudo no llevara el gorro purpúreo, conquistó una autoridad tal que cuando, en 1984, las Brigadas Rojas quisieron reanudar el diálogo con el Estado, fueron a entregar las armas en su curia.

Italia acogió conmovida la noticia del fallecimiento de una de las voces más valientes y rompedoras en el seno de la Iglesia contemporánea. Una voz que siempre se levó para fomentar el diálogo entre las religiones, la judía y la musulmana, justo en la ciudad clave de la retórica xenófoba de la Liga Norte. Las campanas de su antigua Diócesis sonaron al unísono para anunciar su fallecimiento y el lunes, día del funeral en el Duomo, será luto ciudadano.

Martini se retiró en su vida íntima para prepararse ante la muerte, y cuando estaba cerca, la eligió digna y natural: “Rechazó cualquier encarnizamiento terapéutico y se mantuvo lúcido hasta el último momento”, contó su neurólogo. “Tras una última crisis, en agosto, no podía engullir. Pero rehusó la alimentación forzada con tubitos y sondas gastrointestinales”, contó el doctor.

Martini nació en Turín en 1927, con 17 años entró en la Compañía del Jesús para estudiar Filosofía y Teología. Fue ordenado sacerdote en 1952. Paolo VI le nombró Rector de la Pontificia universidad Gregoriana. Giovanni Paolo II, lo destinó a guiar la diócesis de Milán y el día de Reyes de 1980, en San Pedro, le ordenó obispo. En febrero, Martini toma las riendas de su Diócesis. Enseguida puso en marcha una serie de meditaciones —la Escuela de la palabra— sobre la Biblia que conducía en público en la catedral, con el objetivo de acercar las Escrituras a las personas. La iniciativa tuvo mucho éxito y resonancia. En 1983, Woytila le hizo cardenal. Tres años más tarde, en Varsovia, fue elegido presidente del Consejo de las Conferencias Episcopales Europeas. Luego, lanzaría la cátedra de los no creyentes: ciclos de charlas donde dialogaba con laicos del mundo de la cultura, la política y las instituciones: “Cada uno guarda en sí a un creyente y a un no creyente que se interrogan recíprocamente”, dijo en la primera cita. Martini recibió en 2000 el Premio Príncipe de Asturias de Ciencias Sociales.

En abril de 2002 obtuvo de Juan Pablo II el permiso de jubilarse, a pesar de que el Pontífice le invitara a quedarse un tiempo más. Su deseo era irse a Jerusalén para profundizar en sus estudios bíblicos. Y se fue. En 2005 iría a Roma para elegir en la silla de San Pedro a Joseph Ratzinger, el actual papa Benedicto XVI. En aquellos días de Concilio, algunos observadores especulaban que el mismo Martini fuera uno de los posibles sucesores de Woityla. No fue así. Volvió a Italia en 2008, ya anciano y bastante afectado por la enfermedad. Se retiró en una residencia de jesuitas a las afueras de Milán, donde pasó los últimos años estudiando, dando charlas y escribiendo.

Hace pocos meses salió Creer y conocer, fruto de una conversación con el exponente del Partido Democrático (centro izquierdas) Ignazio Marino. Un último libro que encendió el debate en Italia. En esas páginas, suerte de testamento ético, Martini encara con la valentía y humanidad que le caracterizaban los temas más espinosos que parecen contraponer la Iglesia a la sociedad contemporánea: el aborto y el principio de la vida; la fecundación asistida y la donación de los embriones; el uso del preservativo y la homosexualidad; la eutanasia. “Nunca, en él, el dogma venció sobre la vida real —comentó el teólogo Vito Mancuso—. Nunca la letra mató al espíritu. Martini fue uno de los ejemplos más límpidos del catolicismo liberal y no dogmático”.

Fonte: http://sociedad.elpais.com/sociedad/2012/08/31/actualidad/1346428397_315282.html

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