«Mercadona y SAT: ¿Quiénes son los ladrones?», Esther Vivas

Sacar de un supermercado nueve carros de la compra con productos alimentarios de primera necesidad sin pasar por caja para dárselo a quienes más lo necesitan parece ser constitutivo de delito; vulnerar derechos laborales, pagar un precio de miseria a los productores agrícolas y acabar con el campesinado local… queda impune ante la Ley.

Ésta es la conclusión que podemos sacar de la acción llevada a cabo por el Sindicato Andaluz de Trabajadores (SAT), cuando este martes 7 de agosto entraron en dos supermercados, un Mercadona en Écija (Sevilla) y un Carrefour en Arcos de la Frontera (Cádiz), recogieron alimentos básicos, salieron del primero por la puerta sin pagar y se los entregaron a colectivos necesitados.

Tras esta acción, el ministro de interior Jorge Fernández Díaz ha dado orden de “busca y captura” para los sindicalistas que la llevaron a cabo, afirmando que “todos somos conscientes de que la gente lo está pasando mal, pero el fin no justifica los medios”. Aunque para Fernández Díaz sí hay medios que son justificados por determinados fines. Los sindicalistas del SAT no pueden sacar alimentos de un supermercado para dárselos a quienes más lo necesitan, pero el gobierno del PP sí puede recortar la prestación de empleo, el salario de los funcionarios, subir el IVA… con el “hipotético” fin de “sacarnos de la crisis”. Está claro que lo que vale para unos, no vale para otros.

Ahora Mercadona ha presentado denuncia contra aquellos que llevaron a cabo dicha acción por, entre otros, “sustracción de comida”, pero es necesario preguntarnos aquí: “¿Quiénes son los ladrones?”.

Los supermercados a lo largo de las últimas décadas han generalizado un modelo de producción, distribución y consumo de alimentos que ha tenido consecuencias dramáticas para el campesinado, el pequeño comercio, los derechos laborales y el medio ambiente. Carrefour y Mercadona son los máximos exponentes de estas prácticas en el Estado español al encabezar el ranking de las grandes empresas que dominan el sector de la venta al detalle. Ambos supermercados suman casi el 40% de la cuota de mercado de la distribución de alimentos, según datos del 2007.

En el Estado español, tan solo siete cadenas de supermercados controlan el 75% de la distribución de comida. Se trata, tras Carrefour y Mercadona, de Eroski, Alcampo, El Corte Inglés y las dos principales centrales de compra mayoristas Euromadi (con Spar, Schlecker, Corporació Alimentària Guissona…) e IFA (con Condis, Coaliment, Supersol…). Nunca el mercado de la distribución de alimentos había estado en tan pocas manos. Lo que proporciona a estas empresas un enorme poder a la hora de decidir qué comemos, qué precio pagamos por aquello que consumimos y cómo se produce.

Asimismo, los supermercados determinan un modelo de agricultura y de campesinado donde las producciones familiares y a pequeña escala no tienen cabida, promoviendo un modelo de agricultura industrial, intensiva e insostenible. El monopolio ejercido por los supermercados y la presión a los agricultores ha conducido a una situación donde estos cada vez cobran menos por aquello que cultivan. Los precios en origen de los productos agrícolas han llegado a multiplicarse hasta por once en destino, según datos del sindicato agrario COAG. Y se calcula que más del 60% del beneficio final del precio del producto se concentra en los supermercados. Actualmente, en el Estado español poco más del 5% de la población activa es campesina.

El modelo de distribución comercial de los supermercados conlleva también consecuencias negativas para quienes forman parte de su plantilla laboral. Los trabajadores de estos centros están sometidos a una estricta organización laboral neotaylorista caracterizada por ritmos de trabajo intensos, tareas repetitivas y rutinarias, causantes de agotamiento, estrés y enfermedades laborales propias del sector. En lo que respecta a las condiciones contractuales, priman los bajos salarios y los horarios atípicos que generan en los trabajadores serias dificultades para conciliar su vida laboral con la social y familiar.

A pesar de que Mercadona ha buscado cultivar la imagen de una empresa familiar, preocupada por el bienestar de sus trabajadores y consumidores, al igual que las grandes cadenas del sector, destaca por imponer unas condiciones de trabajo abusivas y practica una política de gestión de la mano de obra que se basa en el mantenimiento de una presión constante a los trabajadores para asegurar su rendimiento. En el Estado español, una de las principales luchas sindicales contra una empresa de la gran distribución fue la mantenida en 2006 por los trabajadores de Mercadona en el Centro Logístico de Sant Sadurní d’Anoia. Además Mercadona ha tenido varias sentencias contrarias, por despidos improcedentes y acoso en el trabajo, durante los últimos años.

Hoy quien debería dar explicaciones frente a los jueces no son los sindicalistas del SAT con Juan Manuel Sánchez Gordillo a la cabeza, sino el propietario de Mercadona, Juan Roig, por las prácticas abusivas de Mercadona, que le han permitido amasar una de las principales fortunas del país, y ya de paso para dar explicaciones de los oscuros hilos que mueve tras las bambalinas de la política valenciana.

La acción llevada a cabo por los sindicalistas del SAT puede ser ilegal, pero en el contexto de crisis aguda en el que nos encontramos es del todo legítima, mientras que precarizar las condiciones laborales puede ser, lamentablemente, legal pero no tiene nada de legítimo. Y cada vez son más las personas conscientes de ello. De aquí que frente la legitimidad y el apoyo a estas movilizaciones, la única opción del poder sea la represión y la criminalización. Solidaridad, pues, con aquellos que no se resignan y luchan.

Fonte: Público, 09/08/2012

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