«Todavía el fundamentalismo», Leonardo Boff

Achegamos hoxe unha reflexión de Leonardo Boff a propósito das mortes en Noruega.

El acto terrorista perpetrado en Noruega de forma calculada por un extremista noruego de 32 años ha puesto de nuevo sobre el tapete la cuestión del fundamentalismo. Los gobiernos occidentales y los medios de comunicación han inducido a la opinión pública mundial a asociar el fundamentalismo y el terrorismo casi exclusivamente con sectores radicales del islamismo. Barack Obama de Estados Unidos y David Cameron del Reino Unido se apresuraron a solidarizarse con el gobierno de Noruega y reforzaron la idea de dar batalla mortal al terrorismo, presuponiendo que sería un acto de Al Qaeda. Prejuicio. Esta vez era un nativo, blanco, de ojos azules, con nivel superior y cristiano, aunque The New York Times lo presente como «sin cualidades y fácil de olvidar».

Además de rechazar decididamente el terrorismo y el fundamentalismo debemos tratar de entender el por qué de este fenómeno. Ya he abordado algunas veces en esta columna el tema, que resultó en un libro Fundamentalismo, Terrorismo, Religión y Paz: desafío del siglo XXI (Vozes 2009). Ahí refiero, entre otras causas, el tipo de globalización que ha predominado desde el principio, una globalización fundamentalmente de la economía, de los mercados y de las finanzas. Edgar Morin llama a la actual «la edad de hierro de la globalización». No fue seguida, como pedía la realidad, por una globalización política (un gobierno global de los pueblos), una globalización ética y educacional. Me explico: con la globalización inauguramos una fase nueva de la historia del Planeta vivo y de la humanidad misma. Estamos dejando atrás los estrechos límites de las culturas regionales con sus identidades y la figura del estado-nación para adentrarnos cada vez más en el proceso de una historia colectiva de la especie humana, con un destino común, ligado al destino de la vida y, en cierta forma, al de la propia Tierra. Los pueblos se pusieron en movimiento, las comunicaciones pusieron en contacto a todos con todos y, por distintos motivos, empezaron a circular multitudes por el mundo.

Esta transición no fue preparada, puesto que prevalecía una confrontación entre dos formas de organizar la sociedad: el socialismo estatal de la Unión Soviética y el capitalismo liberal de Occidente. Todos debían alinearse con una de estas alternativas. Al desmontarse la Unión Soviética no surgió un mundo multipolar sino el predominio de Estados Unidos como la mayor potencia económico-militar del mundo, que comenzó a ejercer un poder imperial, haciendo a todos alinearse con sus intereses globales. Más que globalización en sentido amplio, se dio una especie de occidentalización del mundo. Funcionó como un rodillo compresor, que pasó por encima de respetables tradiciones culturales. Esto se vio agravado por la arrogancia típica de Occidente de sentirse portador de la mejor cultura, de la mejor ciencia, de la mejor religión, de la mejor forma de producir y de gobernar.

Esta uniformización global generó fuerte resistencia, amargura y rabia en muchos pueblos, que veían erosionarse su identidad y sus costumbres. En situaciones así surgen normalmente fuerzas identitarias que se alían con sectores conservadores de las religiones, guardianes naturales de las tradiciones. De aquí se origina el fundamentalismo que se caracteriza por dar valor absoluto a su punto de vista. Quien afirma de manera absoluta su identidad está condenado a ser intolerante con los diferentes, a despreciarlos y, en el límite, a eliminarlos.

Este fenómeno es recurrente en todo el mundo. En Occidente, grupos significativos de corte conservador se sienten amenazados en su identidad por la penetración de culturas no-europeas, especialmente el islamismo. Rechazan el multiculturalismo y cultivan la xenofobia. El terrorista noruego estaba convencido de que la lucha democrática contra la amenaza de los extranjeros en Europa estaba perdida. Tomó entonces una solución desesperada: realizar un gesto simbólico de eliminación de los «traidores» multiculturales.

La respuesta del gobierno y del pueblo noruego ha sido sabia: respondieron con flores y con la afirmación de más democracia, es decir, de más convivencia con las diferencias, más tolerancia, más hospitalidad y más solidaridad. Este es el camino que garantiza una globalización humana, en la cual será más difícil que semejantes tragedias vuelvan a repetirse.

Fonte: www.servicioskoinonia.org/boff/articulo.php?num=446

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