Foro Social Mundial: 10 anos despois

Diez años después de su primera edición, el Foro Social Mundial (FSM) vuelve África, en un escenario mundial muy diferente al de 2001. En ese entonces la hegemonía del modelo neoliberal aún era grande, la economía mundial no había entrado en crisis y, principalmente, América Latina aún estaba dominada por gobiernos neoliberales, con excepción de Venezuela y Cuba.

Transcurrida una década, el mundo cambió. La crisis económica, nacida en el centro del capitalismo, llevó a las mayores potencias a la estagnación, de la cual aún no consiguen salir, mientras los países del Sur del mundo, que privilegian la integración regional y no los TLCs con Estados Unidos, ya la superaron y volvieron a crecer. El modelo neoliberal perdió legitimidad, aunque siga dominante, incluso con afirmaciones en contrario y con adecuaciones.

A pesar de todo eso, por debilidad de las alternativas a la izquierda, el mundo se volvió todavía más conservador de lo que era hace una década. Incluso la victoria de Obama y el fin del desprestigiado Bush, no alteraron esa tendencia. La Europa de Merkel, Berlusconi, Sarkozy, Cameron, de las agudas crisis con los respectivos paquetes del FMI en Portugal, Grecia, Irlanda, Portugal, viró aún más a la derecha.

La gran excepción es América Latina, no por casualidad el continente donde se originó el FSM. En estos diez años, a la par que se llevaban a cabo los FSMs, el continente fue eligiendo, uno atrás del otro, presidentes comprometidos con la construcción de modelos alternativos al neoliberalismo al que derrotaban en las urnas. Nunca el continente tuvo tantos gobiernos afines entre sí y en la línea pos neoliberal que prioriza los procesos de integración regional en lugar de los TLCs con Estados Unidos y las políticas sociales en lugar de los ajustes fiscales.

En el FSM anterior, en Belén, la presencia más significativa fue la de 5 presidentes, todos latino-americanos, afirmando su compromiso con la construcción de un otro posible. Todos al margen de la política tradicional: un arzobispo relacionado con el movimiento campesino paraguayo, un dirigente indígena boliviano, un intelectual del pensamiento crítico ecuatoriano, un líder militar nacionalista venezolano, un líder sindical brasileño.

Los cinco representan un movimiento más amplio –que incluye también a Argentina, a Uruguay, El Salvador– que construye los únicos procesos de integración -Mercosur, Unasur, Consejo Suramericano de Defensa, Banco del Sur, Alba, Unión de los Pueblos Latinoamericanos– que determinó que esos países hayan avanzado significativamente en su recuperación económica, en la disminución de las desigualdades sociales, en la extensión de los derechos sociales a toda su población, en la afirmación de políticas externas soberanas. América Latina se convirtió en la única región del mundo en la que los gobiernos se identifican con el FSM y avanzan en la superación del neoliberalismo.

Las propuestas del FSM conquistaron espacios en esta década, entre ellas tal vez ninguna como el software libre, instrumento del derecho universal a la comunicación. Algunos gobiernos adoptaron modalidades de regulación sobre la libre circulación del capital financiero. La recuperación de los recursos naturales privatizados –entre ellos el agua– fue llevada a cabo por gobiernos latinoamericanos. La idea de que lo esencial no tiene precio, generalizando derechos para todos, ha sido igualmente llevada a la práctica por gobiernos pos neoliberales en América Latina.

Sin embargo, lamentablemente, la crisis económica general no fue capitalizada por alternativas progresistas en otras regiones, especialmente en Europa. En otros temas del FSM tampoco se pudo avanzar por falta de fuerzas políticas, con arraigo popular y capacidad de liderazgo, que pudieran transformarlos en políticas concretas.

Donde eso fue posible, donde se dieron avances reales en la construcción del otro mundo posible, fue cuando la fuerza social –de masas– e ideológica –de propuestas– logró transformarse en fuerza política concreta, disputar el poder del Estado y, a partir de ahí, conquistar gobiernos para superar el neoliberalismo. En distintos grados, eso se está dando en Bolivia, en Brasil, en Argentina, en Venezuela, en Uruguay, en Ecuador. Porque medidas para superar el neoliberalismo constituyen la recuperación de la capacidad del Estado para inducir el crecimiento económico, para garantizar y extender derechos sociales, para defender la soberanía nacional, para regular la circulación del capital financiero, entre otras.

Por eso, el otro mundo posible, que tiene necesariamente que trascender de la esfera social hacia la política, encuentra en los gobiernos pos neoliberales de América Latina sus puntos más avanzados. Mientras que fuerzas que permanecen auto-recluidas en la resistencia social, se debilitaron, perdieron trascendencia e incluso desaparecieron, al no poder poner en ejecución formas concretas de superación del neoliberalismo.

El FSM de Senegal se da en ese marco político general. En el anterior, hace dos años, predominó una cierta euforia ingenua y espontaneista, de que el neoliberalismo –e incluso el capitalismo– estarían llegando a su final. Estos dos años reforzaron el argumento de que, sin construcción de fuerzas políticas capaces de dirigir procesos concretos, que pasan por los Estados –los existentes o los refundados-, no habrá avances o puede incluso haber retrocesos.

El otro mundo posible está siendo construido concretamente en la América Latina, mediante diferentes modalidades de gobiernos pos neoliberales, que deben constituirse en la referencia más rica –en sus realizaciones, potencialidades y también en sus conflictos– para avanzar en los ideales que el FSM representó hace 10 años. Sin embargo, si no supera él mismo los límites que se autoimpuso, amenaza seguir girando en falso, disociado de los procesos realmente existentes de construcción del otro mundo posible.

Emir Sader, sociólogo y cientista político brasileño, es profesor de la Universidad de São Paulo y dirige el Laboratorio de Políticas Públicas (LPP) de la Universidad del Estado del Río de Janeiro.

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