Darwinismo social, Frei Betto

Frei Betto parte da catástrofe sufrida en Brasil hai uns días para reflexionar sobre o sistema capitalista e o seu modo de funcionar que favorece a uns poucos a costa dos dereitos da maioría.

La catástrofe en la región montañosa de Rio de Janeiro, publicada con todo despliegue, ha conmovido corazones y mentes, logrando movilizar al gobierno y la solidaridad. Pero queda siempre una pregunta: ¿quién ha tenido la culpa? ¿quién es el responsable de la pérdida de tantas vidas?

Del hecho de que los noticiarios muestran los efectos sin abordar las causas se saca la impresión de que la culpa la tuvo el azar. O, si se quiere, san Pedro. La ciudad de Sao Paulo se desbordó y el alcalde en ningún momento hizo autocrítica de su administración. Apenas le echó la culpa al exceso de agua caída del cielo. El mismo cinismo se repitió en varios municipios brasileños que quedaron bajo las aguas.

Sin embargo no sucede nada por casualidad. En el 2008 el huracán Ike atravesó Cuba de sur a norte, derribó 400 mil casas, causó un daño de US$ 4 mil millones y murieron 7 personas. ¿Por qué no fue mayor el número de muertos? Porque en Cuba funciona el sistema de prevención de catástrofes naturales, mientras que en el Brasil el gobierno ha prometido instalar un sistema de alerta… ¡en el 2015!

El ecocidio de la región montañosa fluminense tiene responsables. El principal de ellos es el poder público, que nunca promovió la reforma agraria en el país. Nuestras enormes extensiones de terreno están en manos del latifundismo o de la especulación. De tal modo el desarrollo brasileño se dio según el modelo ‘saci’, de una sola pierna, la urbana.

En la zona rural hacen falta carreteras, energía (el programa Luz para todos llegó con Lula), escuelas de calidad y sobre todo empleos. Para escapar de la miseria y del atraso el brasileño emigra del campo a la ciudad. Por eso hoy más del 80% de nuestra población abarrota las ciudades.

En los países desarrollados, como Francia e Italia, vivir fuera de las megápolis es disfrutar de una mejor calidad de vida. Pero aquí basta con salir del casco urbano para encontrarnos con calles sin asfaltar, casuchas en ruinas, gentes con la señal en el rostro de la pobreza a la que están condenadas.

Nuestros municipios no tienen un plan urbanístico ni control sobre la especulación inmobiliaria. Se invaden selvas vírgenes, se contaminan ríos y lagos, se deforestan montes, se ocupan áreas de reserva ambiental. ¡Y todavía hay quienes insisten en flexibilizar el Código Forestal!

Darwin enseñó que, en la naturaleza, sobreviven los más aptos. Y el sistema capitalista creó estructuras para promover la selección social, de modo que los miserables se mueran cuanto antes.

En las guerras son los pobres y los hijos de los pobres los llevados a los frentes de combate. Ingresar en los EE.UU. y obtener documentos legales para vivir allí es una epopeya que exige riesgos y mañas. Pero cualquier joven latinoamericano dispuesto a alistarse en sus Fuerzas Armadas encontrará las puertas abiertas de par en par.

Los pobres no se mueren de muerte repentina (por cierto que en Bélgica se fabrica una cerveza llamada Muerte súbita). La selección social no se da con la rapidez con la que las cámaras de gas de Hitler mataban judíos, comunistas, gitanos y homosexuales. Es más atroz, más lenta, como una tortura que se prolonga día a día, mediante la falta de dinero, de empleo, de escuela, de atención médica, etc.

Expulsados del campo por el ganado que invade incluso la Amazonía, por los cañaverales donde se practica el trabajo semiesclavo, por el cultivo de la soya o por las inmensas extensiones de tierras ociosas a la espera de su revalorización, las familias brasileñas emprenden el camino de la ciudad con la esperanza de una vida mejor.

No hay quien las reciba, las oriente, quien se preocupe de sus condiciones de salud, su aptitud profesional o la escolaridad de sus niños. Recibida por un pariente o amigo, la familia se instala como puede: ocupa las laderas, arma una champa en la periferia, amplía la favela. Y todo le resulta muy difícil: alistarse en el programa Bolsa Familia, conseguir una escuela para sus hijos, encontrar atención sanitaria. Urgida por la sobrevivencia, busca la economía informal, una ocupación cualquiera y a veces la ilegalidad, la criminalidad o el tráfico de drogas.

Es este darwinismo social, que favorece la acumulación de mucha riqueza en pocas manos (65% de la riqueza del Brasil está en manos de apenas el 20% de la población), el que hace de los pobres víctimas de la indiferencia del gobierno, de la falta de planificación y del rigor de la ley contra los que, ansiosos por multiplicar su capital, ignoran los marcos legales y fomentan la especulación inmobiliaria. ¡Y todavía quieren flexibilizar el Código Forestal, repito!

Fonte: www.adital.com.br/site/noticia.asp?lang=ES&cod=53432

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