Navidad: ¿Jesús o Papá Noel?, Frei Betto

Ya se acerca la Navidad. Es curioso constatar cómo, en una sociedad tan laicizada como la nuestra, en la que predomina la tendencia a traspasar la religión a la esfera privada, una fiesta religiosa pueda constituir todavía una referencia en el calendario de los países de Occidente.

Hay en ello una cuestión de fondo: el ser humano es por naturaleza lúdico y sociable, lo que le induce a ritualizar sus gestos más atávicos, como alimentarse o relacionarse sexualmente. Además de elaborar, condimentar y adornar su comida, lo que ningún otro animal hace, el ser humano exige mesa y protocolo, como cursos y la secuencia plato fuerte y postre.

En el sexo no se restringe al hecho de juntarse para procrear, sino que hace de él una expresión de amor y lo reviste de erotismo y de liturgia, aunque a veces lo practique también como degradación (prostitución, pornografía y pedofilia) y violencia (juego de poder entre rivales).

El carnaval, como la Navidad, era originalmente una fiesta religiosa. En los tres días que anteceden a la Cuaresma, período de ayuno y abstinencia recomendados por la Iglesia, los cristianos se hartaban de carne; de ahí el término ‘carnaval’, festival de la carne. Hoy se reduce a una fiesta meramente profana, en que la carne predomina pero en otro sentido…

Ese cambio ha ocurrido también con la Navidad. Por ser una fiesta de origen cristiano, para celebrar el nacimiento de Jesús, la sociedad laica y religiosamente plural la desfiguran mediante la introducción de la figura consumista de Papá Noel. Lo que debiera ser memoria de la presencia de Dios en la historia humana pasa a ser mero período de minivacaciones centrado en abundancia de comilonas e intercambio compulsivo de regalos.

De ahí el desasosiego que nos produce la Navidad. Como si nuestro inconsciente denunciase el engaño. Ocultamos la espiritualidad y realzamos el consumismo. Perfecto para el mercado. ¿Lo será también para los niños, que crecen sin referencias espirituales y valores subjetivos, sin ritos de paso ni sentido de celebración?

Lejos de mí pretender restaurar la religiosidad represiva del pasado. Pero si hay algo tan inherente a la condición humana como la manutención (comer) y la procreación (sexo) de la vida, es la espiritualidad. Ésta existe hace casi un millón de años, desde que el simio dio el salto hacia el homo sapiens. Las religiones en cambio son recientes, surgieron hace menos de diez mil años.

Si no se fomenta la espiritualidad en la línea de la interiorización subjetiva y de la expresión de conexión con el Transcendente, corre el serio peligro de, apropiada y redireccionada por el sistema, caer en la idolatría de bienes materiales (patrimonio) y de bienes simbólicos (prestigio, poder, estética personal, etc.). Quizás eso explique por qué la mayoría de los centros comerciales tienen líneas arquitectónicas similares a catedrales posmodernas…

Ya no son los principios religiosos los que dirigen nuestra vida. Desentendidos del altruismo y la solidaridad, centramos nuestra existencia en el propio ombligo -lo cual explica ciertamente, en expresión de Freud, «el malestar de la civilización», acrecentado hoy por ese vacío interior que genera tanta angustia, ansiedad y depresión.

De seguro que la Navidad es ocasión propicia para nacer de nuevo, tal como le propuso Jesús a Nicodemo.

[Traducción de J.L.Burguet]

Fonte: www.adital.com.br/site/noticia.asp?lang=ES&cod=52904

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