Lectura y Aprendizaje – Frei Betto

Nesta artigo o dominico brasileiro analiza a importancia da cultura -en especial da cultura escrita. os libros- para o adecuado  desenvolvemento da infancia e dos países.

Lectura y Aprendizaje – Frei Betto

En el Brasil se lee, en promedio, 1.3 libros por año y persona. En los Estados Unidos 11, en Francia 7, en Argentina 3.2. Y en nuestro país hay 2.980 librerías, o sea una por cada 64 mil habitantes. La Unesco considera razonable una librería por cada 10 mil habitantes.

El Ministerio da Cultura garantiza que hasta el fin del gobierno de Lula serán inauguradas bibliotecas públicas en 2 mil municipios. Tengo mis dudas. El plazo para captar recursos del gobierno federal destinados a la revitalización de bibliotecas públicas se cerró a mediados de julio. Apenas 300 se repartirán los US$ 12 millones entregados. Lo cual significa que cada municipio, con sólo US$ 40 mil, deberá modernizar las instalaciones, actualizar el depósito, mejorar el acceso de lectores con deficiencias e incluso crear bibliotecas secundarias (en distritos, barrios de la periferia y de la zona rural). También dudo, a no ser que las municipalidades descubran cómo multiplicar el dinero y la capacitación del personal.

En todo el país hay 4.763 bibliotecas. Una por cada 33 mil habitantes. En la Argentina hay una por cada 17 mil. En 420 ciudades brasileñas no existen bibliotecas o se encuentran cerradas. Nuestras bibliotecas prestan, como promedio, apenas 296 libros al día, lo que es muy poco. Y sólo el 29% de las mismas tienen acceso a internet.

Estos datos son del Censo Nacional de las Bibliotecas Públicas Municipales, realizado por la Fundación Getúlio Vargas a pedido del Ministerio de Cultura.

Una investigación del Observatorio del Libro revela que el alto precio es, para el 67% de los lectores, la principal razón de recurrir a la fotocopia de un libro, a pesar de que esa práctica está prohibida por la ley. Otro 20% justifica la ilegalidad por no encontrar el título en las librerías. Y el 13% alega que, en las facultades, es más fácil fotocopiar un libro que encontrarlo en préstamo o para la compra.

Según la Unesco, el Brasil tiene 13.8 millones de analfabetos. Sin contar los analfabetos funcionales, un universo que engloba al 54% de la población de entre 15 y 64 años que cursaron hasta el 4º básico y, sin embargo, no son capaces de comprender textos largos y mucho menos de redactar una carta sin graves errores de ortografía o de sintaxis.

En los Estados Unidos, una investigación de las universidades de Nevada y de California constató que cuantos más libros hay en una casa, más años de escolaridad alcanzarán los niños que la habitan. El nivel cultural y de escolaridad de los padres también influye, aunque menos que la disponibilidad de libros en el hogar. Además de  ser útiles para el aprendizaje escolar, amplían el vocabulario y la imaginación, el conocimiento de la historia y la geografía y la capacidad de reflexionar y de argumentar.

Hoy se recomienda la lectura de historias infantiles desde la primera semana de vida del bebé. Aunque se tenga la impresión de total desinterés por parte de él, en verdad eso le ayuda a mejorar las sinapsis cerebrales, o sea la conexión entre los 100 billones de neuronas del cerebro. Lo cual es como haber recorrido medio camino para que, en la edad de la razón, él sea más capaz de construir síntesis cognitivas, sabiendo relacionar las partes con el todo y fragmentar el todo en sus partes constitutivas.

Pero no basta con leer la historia. Hay que interactuar con el niño: mostrar figuras, hacer preguntas, reproducir sonidos sugeridos, imitar a personajes, etc.

Vale recordar que asimilamos el 90% de todo lo que es importante aprender para hacer de cada uno de nosotros un ser humano hasta los seis años de edad: comer, andar, hablar, distinguir personas y relaciones de parentesco, discernir ocasiones de peligro o de riesgo, perfeccionar el instinto de sobrevivencia, etc.

Los niños que escuchan historias desde muy tiernos enriquecen su vocabulario y desarrollan la capacidad de comprensión y de aprendizaje. Las investigaciones comprueban que el hábito de la lectura en casa posibilita un mejor aprovechamiento escolar.

El gran peligro hoy es ver a niños y adolescentes «secuestrados» intelectualmente por la hipnosis televisiva de baja calidad o navegando a la deriva en internet. En el caso de la TV, el peligro de abandonar la propia imaginación en favor de las fantasías proyectadas en la pantalla. En la adolescencia podrán incluso buscar suplir la carencia a través de las drogas.

El peligro del uso abusivo de internet, sobre todo cuando se navega sin dirección, es ser bombardeado por un flujo de estímulos e informaciones sin estructura cognitiva y moral para seleccionarlos o discernirlos. Y es bueno recordar que ver lo que aparece en la TV y en la pantalla del ordenador no equivale a leer ni, mucho menos, a escribir.

Bien cantaban los versos de Castro Alves, en el siglo XIX: «Oh. Bendito el que siembra / libros… libros a manos llenas / ¡Y manda al pueblo pensar! / El libro cayendo en el alma / es germen – que hace la palma / Es lluvia que hace la mar».

http://www.limitedaterra.org.br

[Traducción de J.L.Burguet]

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Fonte: www.adital.com.br/site/noticia.asp?lang=ES&cod=50472

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