¿Por qué continúa existiendo la Iglesia-poder? – Leonardo Boff

Achegamos un interesante artigo do teólogo brasileiro Leonardo Boff no que analiza algunhas das razóns da existencia da Igrexa-poder.

¿Por qué continúa existiendo la Iglesia-poder? – Leonardo Boff

Voy a abordar un tema incómodo, pero ineludible: ¿cómo puede la institución-Iglesia, tal como la he descrito en un artículo previo, con características autoritarias, absolutistas y excluyentes, perpetuarse en la historia? La ideología dominante responde: «sólo porque es divina». En realidad, este ejercicio de poder no tiene nada de divino. Es exactamente lo que Jesús no quería. Él quería la hierodulia (servicio sagrado) y no la hierarquia (poder sagrado). Pero ésta última se impuso a través de los tiempos.

Las instituciones autoritarias suelen tener una misma lógica de autorreproducción. Con la Iglesia-institución no es diferente. En primer lugar, ella se juzga la única verdadera y retira el título de «iglesia» a todas las demás. Luego crea un marco riguroso: un pensamiento único, una única dogmática, un único catecismo, un único derecho canónico, una única forma de liturgia. No se tolera la crítica ni la creatividad, consideradas negativas o denunciadas como creadoras de una Iglesia paralela o de otro magisterio.

En segundo lugar, se usa la violencia simbólica del control, de la represión y del castigo, frecuentemente a costa de los derechos humanos. Fácilmente el cuestionado es marginado, se le niega el derecho de predicar, de escribir y de actuar en la comunidad. El entonces cardenal. Joseph Ratzinger, presidente de la Congregación para la Doctrina de la Fe, durante su mandato castigó a más de cien teólogos. Con esta misma lógica, los pecados y crímenes de los sacerdotes pedófilos u otros delitos, como los financieros, se mantienen ocultos para no perjudicar el buen nombre de la Iglesia, sin el menor sentido de justicia hacia las víctimas inocentes.

En tercer lugar, se mitifican y casi se idolatran las autoridades eclesiásticas, principalmente el Papa, que es el «dulce Cristo en la Tierra». Pienso para mí mismo: ¿qué dulce Cristo sería el Papa Sergio (904), asesino de sus dos predecesores, o el Papa Juan XII (955), elegido a la edad de 20 años, adúltero y muerto por el marido traicionado, o peor, el Papa Benedicto IX (1033), elegido con 15 años de edad, uno de los más criminales e indignos de la historia del papado, que llegó a vender la dignidad papal por 1000 liras de plata?

En cuarto lugar, se canonizan figuras cuyas virtudes se encuadran en el sistema, como la obediencia ciega, la continua exaltación de las autoridades y el «sentir con la Iglesia (jerarquía)», muy al estilo fascista según el cual «el jefe (Duce, o Führer) siempre tiene razón».

En quinto lugar, hay personas y cristianos de naturaleza autoritaria que aprecian por encima de todo el orden, la ley y el principio de autoridad en detrimento de la lógica compleja de la vida que tiene sorpresas y exige tolerancia y adaptaciones. Ellos secundan este tipo de Iglesia, así como los regímenes políticos autoritarios y dictatoriales. Es más, hay una estrecha afinidad entre los regímenes dictatoriales y la Iglesia-poder, tal como se ha podido ver con los dictadores Franco, Salazar, Mussolini, Pinochet y otros. Los sacerdotes conservadores fácilmente son hechos obispos, y los obispos fidelísimos a Roma son promovidos, fomentando el servilismo. Este bloque histórico-social-religioso cristalizó, garantizando la continuidad de este tipo de Iglesia.

En sexto lugar, la Iglesia-poder conoce el valor de los ritos y símbolos, pues refuerzan la identidad conservadora, pero cuida menos sus contenidos, con tal que se mantengan inalterables y sean estrictamente observados.

En razón de esta rigidez dogmática y canónica, la Iglesia-institución no es vivida como hogar espiritual. Muchos emigran. Dicen sí al cristianismo y no a la Iglesia-poder con la cual no se identifican. Se dan cuenta de las distorsiones hechas a la herencia de Jesús que predicó la libertad y exaltó el amor incondicional.

No obstante estas patologías, tenemos figuras como el Papa Juan XXIII, dom Helder Câmara, don Pedro Casaldáliga, don Luiz Flávio Cappio y otros, que no reproducen el estilo autoritario, ni se presentan como autoridades eclesiásticas sino como pastores en medio del Pueblo de Dios. Pero a pesar de estas contradicciones, hay un mérito que es importante reconocer: este tipo autoritario de Iglesia nunca ha dejado de trasmitir los evangelios, aunque sea negándolos en la práctica, permitiéndonos así el acceso al mensaje revolucionario del Nazareno. Ella predica la liberación, pero generalmente son otros los que liberan.

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