Orden y desorden mundiales, Frei Betto

Achegamos este artigo do teólogo brasileiro Frei Betto que leva por título: «Orden y desordenes mundiales». Aquí volo deixamos extraído de Adital:

Orden y desorden mundiales, Frei Betto

El mundo en que vivimos está movido por relaciones internacionales en las que destacan estadistas, ministros, organismos supranacionales y sobre todo el capital. El flujo y reflujo del dinero determinan el destino de las naciones. Con frecuencia se olvida el protagonismo de los pueblos en el escenario mundial. Ellos son siempre las grandes víctimas.

En la fase monopolista del capital, entre los siglos 15 y 19, el orden mundial estaba dirigido por potencias coloniales como España, Inglaterra y Francia. Se calcula que, sólo en América Latina y el Caribe, la presencia colonial dejó un rastro de al menos 18 millones de indígenas muertos. Otras fuentes calculan 100 millones (Población originaria, 1500. Eric Toussaint: La Mundialización desde Cristóbal Colón hasta Vasco da Gama – http://www.forumdesalternatives.org).

En busca de mano de obra necesaria para la acumulación de capital se estima que cerca de 12 millones de africanos fueron secuestrados en sus tierras y esclavizados en el sur de los EE.UU., en el Caribe y en América Latina.

Los que sobrevivieron al genocidio colonial y se reprodujeron en el territorio americano asumieron el protagonismo de las luchas coloniales que propiciaron, a partir de 1810, la independencia de América Latina y el Caribe. Sin embargo no se constituyeron en beneficiarios de las luchas emancipatorias que implantaron en nuestro continente la república y la democracia, salvo algunos ensayos de poder popular, como sucedió en el Haití gobernado por antiguos esclavos; en el Paraguay anterior a la guerra promovida por la Triple Alianza; en Cuba a partir de 1959 y, ahora, en las Constituciones que incorporan los derechos de los pueblos originarios y afrodescendientes, como sucede en Venezuela, Ecuador y Bolivia.

En su fase imperialista el capitalismo, en su lucha por mercados, promovió dos guerras mundiales. La primera creó las condiciones para el ascenso del nazismo y del fascismo y llevó a los EE.UU. a la bancarrota en 1929. La segunda forzó la migración de 60 millones de personas y causó la muerte de 72 millones, el 2% de la población mundial de la época. A todo ello súmense los traumas físicos y sicológicos causados por las guerras, las secuelas de los campos de concentración, la desarticulación familiar y los esfuerzos de adaptación a la vida civil de los soldados sobrevivientes.

Las víctimas que escaparon del holocausto, los comunistas europeos y los guerrilleros de los países ocupados fueron los protagonistas de la derrota del nazifascismo y los sujetos del orden mundial bipolar de la posguerra, con el surgimiento de la Unión Soviética.

Can la caída del muro de Berlín en 1989 regresamos a un mundo unipolar bajo la hegemonía del capitalismo que, con su carácter neoliberal, anuló importantes conquistas sociales, introdujo el Estado mínimo y la privatización del patrimonio público, promovió la flexibilización de los derechos de los trabajadores e hizo que la especulación financiera se sobrepusiera a la producción agroindustrial.

Iraq y Afganistán revelan hoy la cara más cruel de ese mundo unipolar en el que los EE.UU. se empeñan en asegurar para sí una preciosa mercancía cada vez más escasa: el petróleo. Murieron en esos países más de un millón de personas, la mayoría civiles, y por la parte del agresor 75 mil soldados usamericanos muertos o heridos.

En América Latina la principal víctima de la hegemonía unipolar es Cuba, sometida al bloqueo económico por los EE.UU., lo que ya le causó un perjuicio superior a los 50 mil millones de dólares.

El pueblo mexicano hoy sabe que fue víctima de la artimaña del Tratado de Libre Comercio firmado con los EE.UU., cuyo fracaso abortó la propuesta usamericana del ALCA. Se decía que los mexicanos alcanzarían la misma renta per capita que los estadounidenses. Hoy la renta per capita de los mexicanos equivale a apenas el 0,32 % de la renta de los canadienses y el 0,25 % de los estadounidenses. La economía mexicana se encuentra totalmente desnacionalizada y cada año cerca de 750 mil mexicanos emigran hacia los EE.UU. en busca de trabajo.

Según la Cepal la pobreza en México era del 39 % de la población antes del Tratado; hoy es del 50.9 %. Otras fuentes estiman el 70 % de la población en condición de pobreza (Ulloa Bonilla, 2007).

A pesar del amplio espectro de pobreza en el mundo, el monopolio mediático del capitalismo infunde en el imaginario popular la incuestionable superioridad del sistema de apropiación privada de los bienes y de la riqueza en su plena consonancia con la democracia y la libertad. A falta de pan, el circo provoca una especie de anestesia en la mente de quienes son las mayores víctimas del sistema.

Basta mirar alrededor para darse cuenta de los efectos del sistema: degradación ambiental, crisis energética, alza de los alimentos, escasez de agua, flujos migratorios, terrorismo, tráfico de drogas, de personas y de armas, manipulación de los medicamentos y de las patentes genéticas, y ahora la crisis económica iniciada en setiembre del 2008 y que afecta duramente al área del euro.

Las elecciones del 2010 en Brasil no pueden ignorar el protagonismo de nuestro país en esta conflictiva coyuntura mundial. Y el derecho a la soberanía y a la autodeterminación de los países de América Latina y el Caribe.

[Traducción de J.L.Burguet]

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Fonte: www.adital.com.br/site/noticia.asp?lang=ES&cod=48981

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