Socialismo y Libertad, Frei Betto

Achegamos o artigo do teólogo brasileiro no que analiza o sistema socialista, repasando as experiencias que se deron na historia e deténdose máis polo miúdo na situación de Cuba.

Socialismo y Libertad, Frei Betto

El socialismo es estructuralmente más justo que el capitalismo. Sin embargo en sus experiencias reales no supo aunar la cuestión de la libertad individual y corporativa. Rodeado por naciones y presiones capitalistas, el socialismo soviético cometió el error de abandonar el proyecto originario de democracia proletaria, basado en los soviets, para perpetuar la herencia maldita de la estructura imperial zarista de Rusia, ahora eufemísticamente denominada «centralismo democrático».

En países como China se le niega a la nación la libertad concedida al capital. Allí el socialismo asumió el carácter esdrújulo de «capitalismo de Estado», con todos los agravantes, como la desigualdad social y los bolsones de miseria y pobreza, sobreexplotación del trabajo, etc.

No sorprende, pues, que el socialismo real haya caído en la Unión Soviética, después de 70 años de vigencia. El excesivo control estatal creó situaciones paradójicas, como el adelantamiento de los rusos en la conquista del espacio, mientras que no consiguieron ofrecer a la población bienes de consumo elementales de calidad, un mercado minorista eficiente y una pedagogía de formación de los llamados «hombre y mujer nuevos».

En ese escenario Cuba es una excepción. Se trata de una cuádruple isla: geográfica, política (el único país socialista de la historia de Occidente), económica (debido al bloqueo impuesto criminalmente por el gobierno de los EUA) y huérfana (con el fin de la Guerra Fría y la caída del muro de Berlín en 1989 perdió el apoyo de la extinta Unión Soviética).

El régimen cubano está adelantado en lo tocante a la justicia social. Prueba de ello es el hecho de ocupar el lugar número 51 en el Índice de Desarrollo Humano establecido por la ONU (Brasil ocupa el 75) y no presenta bolsones de miseria (aunque haya pobreza) ni tiene una casta de ricos y privilegiados. Si hay quien se lanza al mar con la esperanza de una vida mejor en los EUA ello se debe a las exigencias, nada atractivas, de vivir en un sistema de compartir. Vivir en Cuba es como vivir en un monasterio: la comunidad tiene precedencia sobre la individualidad. Se necesita gran dosis de altruismo.

En cuanto a la libertad individual, ella nunca fue negada a los ciudadanos, excepto cuando representó una amenaza a la seguridad de la Revolución o significó prácticas económicas sin el debido control estatal. Es innegable que el régimen cubano tuvo, a lo largo de cinco décadas (la Revolución cumplió 50 años el 1º de enero del 2009), sus fases de sectarismo, tributo a su aproximación a la Unión Soviética.

Pero nunca fueron prohibidas las denominaciones religiosas, ni cerrados los templos, ni perseguidos por razones de fe los sacerdotes y pastores. La visita del papa Juan Pablo II a la isla en 1998, y su positiva apreciación sobre las conquistas de la Revolución, especialmente en las áreas de salud y educación, lo comprueban.

Mientras tanto, el sistema cubano da señales de que podrá aunar mejor la cuestión de socialismo y libertad a través de mecanismos más democráticos de participación popular en el gobierno, la flexibilización del monopartidismo, mayor rotación en el poder, de modo que las críticas al régimen puedan llegar a las instancias superiores sin que sean confundidas con manifestaciones contrarrevolucionarias. Sobre todo en el área económica Cuba tendrá que repensar su modelo, facilitando a la población el acceso a la producción y consumo de bienes que abarcan desde el pan de la panadería de la esquina hasta las empresas mixtas con inversiones extranjeras.

En el socialismo no se trata de hablar de «libertad de» sino de «libertad para», de modo que ese derecho inalienable del ser humano no ceda ante los vicios capitalistas que permiten que la libertad de uno se amplíe en detrimento de la libertad de los otros. El principio «a cada uno según sus necesidades, de cada no según sus posibilidades» debe orientar la construcción de un futuro socialista en que el proyecto comunitario sea de hecho la condición de realización y de la felicidad personal y familiar.

Fonte: www.adital.com.br/site/noticia.asp?lang=ES&cod=48372

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