«Acepta sin protestar los ORÁCULOS DE LA VERDAD…y no pienses por ti mismo», Frei Betto

Achegamos un dos últimos artigos do teólogo brasileito Frei Betto que leva por títutlo: «Acepta sin protestar los ORÁCULOS DE LA VERDAD…y no pienses por ti mismo».

«Acepta sin protestar los ORÁCULOS DE LA VERDAD…y no pienses por ti mismo», Frei Betto

El filósofo alemán Enmanuel Kant no está muy de moda. Sobre todo por haber utilizado en sus obras un lenguaje hermético. Sin embargo en uno de sus brillantes textos -“¿Qué es el Iluminismo?”- subraya un fenómeno que, en la cultura televisual que hoy impera, se vuelve cada vez más generalizado: las personas renuncian a pensar por sí mismas. Prefieren ponerse bajo la protección de los ‘oráculos de la verdad’: la revista semanal, el telediario, el jefe, el párroco o el pastor.

Ellos son los guardianes de la verdad que, bondadosamente, velan para no permitirnos incurrir en equívocos. Gracias a sus voces de alerta sabemos que las muertes de terroristas en las cárceles made in USA de Bagdag y Guantánamo son simples accidentes del camino comparadas con la muerte de un preso común, disfrazado de político, en un hospital de Cuba, con motivo de una prolongada huelga de hambre.

Ellos nos hacen digeribles los bombardeos de los Estados Unidos en Iraq y en Afganistán, diezmando aldeas con niños y mujeres, y nos hacen ver con horror la pretensión de Irán de hacer uso pacífico de la energía nuclear, mientras que su vecino Israel posee la bomba atómica.

Son ellos quienes nos inducen a repudiar el Movimiento de los Sin Tierra en su lucha por la reforma agraria, mientras que el latifundio, en nombre del agronegocio, invade la Amazonía , despala la selva y utiliza mano de obra esclava.

Es eso lo que, en opinión de Kant, vuelve al público Hausvich, ‘ganado doméstico’, rebaño, de manera que todos acepten resignados el permanecer confinados en el corral, conscientes del peligro de caminar solos.

Kant apunta una lista de oráculos de la verdad: el mal gobernante, el militar, el profesor, el sacerdote, etc. Todos ellos gritan “¡No piensen!”, “¡Obedezcan!”, “¡Paguen!”, “¡Crean!”. El filósofo francés Dany-Robert Dufour sugiere incluir al publicista que hoy ordena al rebaño de consumidores: “¡No piensen! ¡Gasten!”

Tocqueville, autor de De la democracia en América (1840), opina en su famoso libro que el tipo de despotismo que las naciones democráticas deberían temer es exactamente su reducción a “un rebaño de animales tímidos y laboriosos”, libres de la “preocupación de pensar”.

El viejo Marx, que está de moda por haber previsto las crisis cíclicas del capitalismo, señaló que éstas procederían de la superproducción, lo que de hecho sucedió en 1929. Aunque no fue lo que hemos visto en el 2008, cuyos ecos perduran. La crisis actual no derivó de la maximización de la explotación del trabajador sino de la maximización de la explotación de los consumidores. “Consumo, luego existo”, ése es el principio de la lógica posmoderna.

Para transformar el mundo en un gran mercado las técnicas de mercadeo contaron con la valiosa contribución de Edward Bernays, doble sobrino estadounidense de Freud. Ana, hermana del creador del sicoanálisis y madre de Bernays, estaba casada con el hermano de Marta, mujer de Freud. Los libros de éste fueron publicados por el sobrino en los Estados Unidos. Ya en 1923, en Crystallizing Public Opinion, Barnays argumenta que los gobiernos y los anunciantes son capaces de “organizar la mente (del público) como los militares hacen con el cuerpo”.

Como ganado, el consumidor busca su seguridad en la identificación con el rebaño, capaz de homogeneizar su comportamiento, creando patrones universales de hábitos de consumo a través de una propaganda libidinal que graba en él la sensación de ver correspondido el deseo por la mercancía adquirida. Y cuanto más temprano se inicia ese adiestramiento para el consumismo, tanto mayor es la maximización de la ganancia. El ideal es cada niño con un televisor en su propia habitación.

Para alcanzar ese objetivo es necesario incrementar una cultura del egoísmo como regla de vida. No es por casualidad que casi todos los anuncios se basen en la exacerbación de alguno de los siete pecados capitales. Todos ellos, sin excepción, son tenidos como virtudes en esta sociedad neoliberal corroída por el afán consumista.

La envidia es estimulada en el anuncio de la familia que tiene un auto mejor que sus vecinos. La avaricia es el lema de las libretas de ahorro. La codicia inspira los anuncios, desde el último modelo de teléfono celular hasta los tenis de marca. El orgullo es señal del éxito de los ejecutivos asegurados por planes de salud eterna. La pereza se ve reflejada en las confortables sandalias que permiten relajarnos al sol.

La lujuria es marca registrada de los jóvenes esbeltos y de las muchachas esculturales que disfrutan de una vida saludable y feliz consumiendo bebidas, cigarros, ropa y cosméticos. La gula, en fin, envenena la alimentación infantil en forma de chocolates, refrescos y galletas, induciendo a creer que los sabores son preludio de amores.

En la sociedad neoliberal la libertad se restringe a la variedad de elecciones consumistas; la democracia a votar a los que disponen de recursos millonarios para sufragar la campaña electoral; la virtud a pensar primero en sí mismo y a mirar al otro como competidor. Ésta es la verdad proclamada por los oráculos del sistema.

Traducción de J.L.Burguet (24-05-10)

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