O sábado 30 de agosto un pequeño grupo de persoas, convocadas polo grupo Imán, concentrábanse na Praza da Constitución para presentar unha novedosa palabra que ven a designar unha vella realidade. Aporofobia é a palabra coa que Imán quere encher as rúas da cidade.
Hoxe comezaron pegando unha pancarta nun muro do Casco Vello e así ata conseguir que ese termo, creado pola catedrática Adela Cortina, cale nas nosas mentes. Podedes achegarvos ao termo a través do texto lido na concentración e a través da crónica Voz de Galicia.
Aunque la palabra “aporofobia” todavía no figura en los diccionarios de nuestra lengua, ha sido recientemente utilizado en numerosas publicaciones con el significado de las palabras griegas que lo componen: “áporos” (pobre, sin salidas, escaso de recursos) y “fobia” (temor); de modo que el término “aporofobia” serviría para nombrar un sentimiento de rechazo al pobre, al desamparado, al que carece de medios o de recursos.
Esta novedosa palabra aparece por primera vez en una serie de publicaciones de la filósofa y catedrática Adela Cortina, que la propone para poder designar una realidad que hasta ese momento no tenía nombre, pero que parecía la verdadera clave de muchas conductas indeseables en las sociedades desarrolladas. Así, la verdadera actitud que subyace a muchos comportamientos supuestamente racistas y xenófobos no sería, en realidad, la hostilidad a los extranjeros o a las personas que pertenecen a una etnia diferente a la mayoritaria, sino la repugnancia y el temor a los pobres, a las personas que no presentan el “aspecto respetable” de quienes tienen cubiertas sus necesidades básicas. De hecho, “no marginamos al inmigrante si es rico, ni al negro que es jugador de baloncesto, ni al jubilado con patrimonio: a los que marginamos es a los pobres”.
La aporofobia consiste, por tanto, en un sentimiento de miedo y en una actitud de rechazo al pobre, al sin medios, al desamparado. Tal sentimiento y tal actitud son adquiridos, es decir, se inducen, se provocan, se aprenden y se difunden a partir de relatos alarmistas y sensacionalistas que relacionan a las personas de escasos recursos con la delincuencia y con una supuesta amenaza a la estabilidad del sistema socioeconómico. Aunque un análisis riguroso de los datos disponibles nos muestra que la mayor parte de la delincuencia, y la más peligrosa, no procede de los sectores pobres de la población, no resulta difícil para quienes ostentan el poder presentar a los pobres como los culpables de cualquier problema social, puesto que la situación de debilidad que atraviesan les impide toda defensa frente a la calumnia. De este modo, se produce un fenómeno que podríamos denominar “el círculo vicioso de la aporofobia”: los colectivos desfavorecidos son acusados a menudo de conductas delictivas y esta mala imagen dificulta su posible integración en la sociedad, con lo cual se prolongan sus dificultades y, en algunos casos, la desesperación les lleva a cometer algún acto ilegal, de manera que se termina por reforzar la mala imagen y así sucesivamente.
La aporofobia se alimenta en cada uno de nosotros a través de un mecanismo psicológico que carece de base lógica: la generalización apresurada. Partiendo de algunos casos particulares (“este mendigo hizo esto”, “aquel desaliñado hizo lo otro”…), se alcanza una conclusión general de tipo universal: “todos los mendigos son peligrosos”, “todos los desaliñados son sospechosos”. Evidentemente, tales generalizaciones son falsas, pero estamos tan acostumbrados a hacerlas que a menudo nos pasan desapercibidas, de ahí que sea necesario que nos ayudemos mutuamente a romper esas generalizaciones apresuradas que hemos ido armando en nuestras mentes a lo largo de la vida.
Pero entonces, si la aporofobia, el desprecio al pobre, es una actitud injusta, ¿cómo es que viene pasando tan desapercibida, hasta el punto de que ni siquiera se tenía un nombre para ella? La respuesta que la profesora Cortina nos ofrece es la siguiente: “En sociedades como las nuestras, organizadas en torno a la idea de contrato en cualquiera de las esferas sociales, el pobre, el verdaderamente diferente en cada una de ellas, es el que no tiene nada interesante que ofrecer a cambio y, por lo tanto, no tiene capacidad real de contratar”. En efecto, la clave para comprender la aporofobia es que en la mayoría de los ámbitos de la vida social hay quienes tienen poder para pactar y también hay quienes no lo tienen; algunas personas tienen algo que puede interesar a los poderosos y en cambio otras carecen de interés para ellos. El resultado es que los “áporoi”, los pobres, son los excluidos del intercambio, los marginados, los que no son tenidos en consideración debido a que carecen de capacidad de intercambio. Y para ocultar la mala imagen que podría acarrear esa falta de consideración hacia personas que están en una situación de debilidad se extiende sobre los pobres el falso cliché de que ellos mismos son culpables de su falta de capacidad y que, por tanto, se merecen la exclusión y el desprecio.
Ante la aporofobia habría tres tipos de actitudes éticas: la de quienes creen que es mejor excluir y culpabilizar a quienes están en apuros que esforzarse lo más mínimo en ayudarlos a salir de su postración, olvidando que los bienes que disfrutamos los seres humanos son bienes sociales y que tienen que ser distribuidos con justicia; la de quienes reconocen que, aunque a corto plazo no parece que compense gran cosa ayudar a otros a salir del desamparo, a la larga es muy conveniente hacerlo para poder preservar cierto orden social y para no correr riesgos innecesarios (no como una cuestión de justicia, sino más bien como una cuestión de prevención de posibles desórdenes sociales); y, por último, la actitud de quienes, desde la justicia y la solidaridad, tienen la sensibilidad moral necesaria para percatarse de que todo ser humano es valioso en sí mismo, y no por los intercambios que pueda realizar, y, por lo tanto, de que todas las personas son dignas de ser tratadas como auténticas ciudadanos.
La aporofobia, desde este punto de vista de estas últimas personas, es completamente intolerable, puesto que forma parte del entramado de injusticias que hacen este mundo un lugar más hostil e inhabitable. Por el contrario, las medidas de eliminación de la miseria, de extensión de la ciudadanía social, de capacitación o empoderamiento de las personas vulnerables, son contempladas como medidas de realización de los valores de justicia que constituyen la base de una convivencia realmente pacífica, colaborativa y humanizadora.
La aporofobia supone, en definitiva, un obstáculo en el camino de la humanidad hacia un mundo más habitable. Si queremos tomar en serio los valores de justicia que se expresan en los textos constitucionales y en las declaraciones solemnes de Derechos Humanos, habremos de tomar serias medidas para evitar el avance de esta lacra, ya que una convivencia intercultural basada en el respeto activo, en las libertades iguales, en la igualdad de oportunidades, en la solidaridad y en la solución pacífica de los conflictos es del todo incompatible con la actitud aporófoba.
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